Chapter 19

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Chapter 19The general term for the manipulation of organisms to create products or cure disease is ________.Top of Form

gene cloning. recombinant DNA technology. biotechnology. plasmid-mediated transformation.Bottom of Form

Many identical copies of genes cloned in bacteria are produced as a result of ________.Top of Form

plasmid replication. bacterial cell replication. Southern blotting. plasmid and bacterial cell replication. plasmid and bacterial cell replication, together with Southern blotting.Bottom of Form

Which of following sequences is most likely to be cut by a restriction enzyme?Top of Form

AATTCT TTAAGA AATCGT TTACGA AAAATT TTTTAA ACTACT TGATGA AATATT TTATAABottom of Form

Imagine that you've isolated the complete human growth hormone gene directly from the human genome. After running through all the steps described in Chapter 19 for cloning and gene expression in bacteria, you find that no human growth hormone is expressed. What is the most likely explanation?Top of Form

Bacteria cannot translate human mRNA coding sequences. Human DNA can be maintained in cloned form only for brief periods in bacteria. Human DNA cannot be cloned in a bacterium. Bacteria lack a nucleus for proper transcription of eukaryotic genes. Bacteria cannot carry out splicing.

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If mRNAs could be ligated and replicated within plasmids, what enzyme commonly used in recombinant DNA technology would no longer be needed?Top of Form

reverse transcriptase DNA polymerase restriction enzymes Taq polymerase DNA polymeraseBottom of Form

How does a gene library differ from a gene clone?Top of Form

A gene library is sequence information stored in a computerized database; a gene clone is an actual sequence of DNA. A gene library is a much longer DNA sequence than a gene clone. A gene library contains many different cloned DNA sequences; a gene clone contains one type of DNA sequence. A gene library is a much shorter DNA sequence than a gene clone. A gene library contains one type of cloned DNA sequence; a gene clone contains many different DNA sequencesBottom of Form

A bacterial cell that has taken up plasmid DNA is ________.Top of Form

a library. a cDNA. transformed. ligated. a vector.Bottom of Form

Plasmids are used as cloning vectors in genetic engineering. This means that plasmids allow for ________.Top of Form

carrying of RNA into a cell and RNA replication. infection of cells. carrying of DNA into a cell and DNA replication. DNA replication outside rather than inside cells.Bottom of Form

Which of the following is a gene library?

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a collection of DNAs cut by a restriction enzyme a collection of different DNA fragments ligated into plasmids a collection of plasmids cut by a restriction enzyme a collection of PCR-amplified DNAs a collection of genes that have been sequenced from a particular organismBottom of Form

How can an amino acid sequence be used to design a gene-specific hybridization probe?Top of Form

A portion of a polypeptide chain can be synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the full protein. A protein can be purified, digested with proteases that cleave it at specific sites, and one of the peptide fragments can be used as a probe. All possible nucleotide sequences that could encode a portion of the polypeptide can be synthesized and used as probes.Bottom of Form

What is a primary difference between PCR and traditional cloning procedures such as those used to clone the human growth hormone gene?Top of Form

PCR is more time-consuming, but the purity of the obtained DNA clone is much higher than in traditional cloning. PCR eliminates the need for restriction enzymes, vectors, and cells. PCR and traditional cloning make use of different types of vectors. PCR uses plasmid vectors, whereas traditional cloning uses bacteria. PCR and traditional cloning make use of different types of bacteria.Bottom of Form

What information is critical to the success of PCR itself?Top of Form

The complete DNA sequence of the DNA to be amplified must be known. The DNA sequence of the ends of the DNA to be amplified must be known. The sequence of restriction enzyme recognition sites in the DNA to be amplified must be known. The sequence of restriction enzyme recognition sites in the DNA to be amplified and in the plasmid where the amplified DNA fragment will be cloned must be known.Bottom of Form

Which of the following is in the correct order for one cycle of PCR?Top of Form

Extend primers; anneal primers; denature DNA. Denature DNA; anneal primers; extend primers. Denature DNA; add fresh enzyme; anneal primers; add dNTPs; extend primers. Anneal primers; denature DNA; extend primers.

Add fresh enzyme; denature DNA; anneal primers; add dNTPs; extend primers.Bottom of Form

In a single PCR cycle consisting of 15 seconds at 94C, 30 seconds at 50C, and 1 min at 72C, what is happening in the step run at 50C?Top of Form

DNA polymerase is extending new DNA from the primers. The DNA to be amplified is being denatured. DNA polymerase is being inactivated. Primers are annealing to the DNA to be amplified. Primers are being denatureBottom of Form

Since dideoxy sequencing is based on the chain termination, why are normal deoxynucleotides also included in the reaction?Top of Form

to provide a substrate for DNA polymerase to create DNA synthesis products long enough to allow running a gel to enhance the chain termination ability of the deoxynucleotides to produce a range of DNA synthesis products that terminate at every occurrence of a particular baseBottom of Form

Why is it essential that genetic markers used in mapping disease genes be polymorphic?Top of Form

If the marker isn't polymorphic, it cannot be physically linked to a gene associated with human disease. If the marker isn't polymorphic, its position cannot be known. If the marker isn't polymorphic, then it will not be inherited in any predictable manner. If the marker isn't polymorphic, then it's impossible to use genetic mapping techniques to establish an association between the marker and the disease gene.Bottom of Form

Transgenic mice ________.Top of Form

often provide valuable animal models of human disease. are now used in place of bacteria for cloning human genes. were instrumental in pinpointing the location of the huntingtin gene. are essential for mapping human genes.Bottom of Form

For applications in gene therapy, what is the most favorable characteristic of retroviruses?Top of Form

Retroviruses have an RNA genome. DNA copies of retroviral genomes become integrated into the genome of the infected cell. Retroviruses cause many serious diseases, including AIDS and cancer. Retroviruses possess reverse transcriptase.Bottom of Form

To create a viral vector for delivery of genes into mammalian cells, the virus must be engineered to ________.Top of Form

remove viral coat proteins. remove the viral genome and coat proteins and replace them with recombinant plasmids carrying the mammalian genes to be delivered. remove all viral genes, replacing them with the mammalian genes to be delivered. remove viral genes involved with virus replication and add mammalian genes to be delivered.Bottom of Form

Genetically engineered crops in the United States ________.Top of Form

are the only types of crops now being planted. have seen some limited commercial success. are widespread for many major crop species. are currently available only for rice. may soon be ready for commercial planting.Bottom of Form

Chapter 20An early step in shotgun sequencing is to ________.Top of Form

randomly select DNA primers and hybridize these to random positions of chromosomes in preparation for sequencing. map the position of cloned DNA fragments. break genomic DNA at random sites.Bottom of Form

The bulk of the sequence data in whole genome sequencing comes from ________.Top of Form

whole chromosomes obtained without cloning. relatively small (~ 1000 base-pair) sequences cloned into plasmids. whole chromosomes cloned into plasmids.

relatively large (~ 160 kb) sequences cloned into BACs.Bottom of Form

The discipline that manages, analyzes, and interprets the vast amounts of sequence data generated from whole genome sequencing is ________.Top of Form

evolutionary genomics. functional genomics. bioinformatics. proteomics.Bottom of Form

The goal of annotating a whole genome sequence is to ________.Top of Form

establish the nucleotide sequence. learn how gene products interact to produce phenotypes. learn the number of nucleotides contained within the genome. identify genes and their positions within the genome.Bottom of Form

Homologous DNA sequences are similar sequences in two organisms that ________.Top of Form

code for identical proteins. are related by chance mutations. are related by descent from a common ancestor. code for identical RNAs. are related because of convergent evolutionBottom of Form

If the sequence of a cDNA matches a DNA sequence in the genome, then this genomic DNA is likely to ________.Top of Form

code for a tRNA. code for a rRNA. be part of an intron. be a regulatory sequence. code for a protein.Bottom of Form

In what sense are studies by 19th-century naturalists and those by early 21st-century genomic biologists similar?Top of Form

Both focus on observing and describing what exists in their realms of investigation. Both constantly strive to create theoretical frameworks in which to understand their findings. Both use evolutionary theory to guide their work. Both focus narrowly on the underlying mechanisms of biology. Both take a reduct