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Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

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Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart. Dr. Norman E. Shumway – performed the first heart transplant in the United States in 1968. The 54-year-old recipient, whose heart had been damaged by virus infection, survived 15 days following surgery. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Chapter 18:

Cardiovascular System:The Heart

Page 2: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Dr. Norman E. Shumway – performed the first heart transplant in the United States in 1968.

The 54-year-old recipient, whose heart had been damaged by virus infection, survived 15

days following surgery.

Page 3: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.3: The circular and spiral arrangement of cardiac muscle bundles in the myocardium of the heart, p. 680.

Cardiacmusclebundles

Page 4: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.4a: Gross anatomy of the heart, p. 681.

(a)

Right atrium

Anteriorinterventricularartery

Right ventricle

Aortic arch(fat covered)

Left auricle ofleft atrium

Apex of heart(left ventricle)

Pulmonary trunk

Page 5: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.4b: Gross anatomy of the heart, p. 681.

(b)

BrachiocephalictrunkSuperiorvena cava

Rightpulmonary artery

AscendingaortaPulmonary trunk

Rightpulmonary veinsRight atriumRight coronaryartery (in coronarysulcus)Anteriorcardiac veinRight ventricleMarginal arterySmall cardiac veinInferiorvena cava

Left commoncarotid arteryLeftsubclavian arteryAortic arch

Ligamentumarteriosum

Left pulmonary artery

Left atrium

Auricle

CircumflexarteryLeft coronaryartery (in coronarysulcus)

Anteriorinterventricular artery(in anteriorinterventricular sulcus)

Great cardiac vein

Apex

Left pulmonary veins

Left ventricle

Page 6: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.4d: Gross anatomy of the heart, p. 682.

(d)

Superiorvena cavaRightpulmonary artery

Rightpulmonary veins

Right atrium

Right coronaryartery (in coronarysulcus)

Right ventricle

Coronary sinus

Middle cardiac vein

Left pulmonary artery

Left atrium

Auricleof left atrium

Left ventricle

Posterior veinof left ventricle

Posteriorinterventricular artery(in posteriorinterventricular sulcus)

Great cardiac vein

Apex

Leftpulmonary veins

Inferiorvena cava

Aorta

Page 7: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.4e: Gross anatomy of the heart, p. 683.

(e)

Superior vena cava

Rightpulmonary arteryPulmonary trunk

Right atriumRightpulmonary veinsFossaovalisPectinatemuscles

TricuspidvalveRight ventricle

ChordaetendineaeTrabeculaecarneaeInferiorvena cava

Aorta

Leftpulmonary arteryLeft atriumLeftpulmonary veins

Pulmonaryvalve

Aorticvalve

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

Left ventricle

PapillarymuscleInterventricularseptumMyocardium

VisceralpericardiumEndocardium

Page 8: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.5: The systemic and pulmonary circuits, p. 684.

Capillary bedsof lungs wheregas exchangeoccurs

Capillarybeds of allbody tissueswhere gasexchangeoccurs

Pulmonaryveins

Pulmonaryarteries

Pulmonary Circuit

Systemic Circuit

Aorta and branches

Leftatrium

Heart

LeftventricleRight

atrium

Rightventricle

Venaecavae

Key:

= Oxygen-rich, CO2-poor blood= Oxygen-poor, CO2-rich blood

Page 9: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.6: Anatomical differences in right and left ventricles, p. 685.

Rightventricle

Leftventricle

Muscularinterventricularseptum

Page 10: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.7: Coronary circulation, p. 685.

(a) (b)

Rightventricle

Rightcoronaryartery

Rightatrium

Marginalartery

Posteriorinterventricularartery

Anteriorinterventricularartery

Circumflexartery

Leftcoronaryartery

Aorta

Anastomosis(junction ofvessels)

Leftventricle

Superiorvena cava

Left atrium

Pulmonarytrunk

Superiorvena cava

Anteriorcardiacveins

Small cardiac vein Middle cardiac vein

Greatcardiacvein

Coronarysinus

Page 11: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.11: Microscopic anatomy of cardiac muscle, p. 690.

Intercalated disc

Nucleus

Nucleus

Nucleus

Desmosome

Desmosome

Gap junctions

Intercalated discs

Sarcolemma

I bandA band

Cardiac muscle cell

Cardiac muscle cell

Sarcolemma

Z disc

Mitochondrion

Mitochondrion

T tubule

Sarcoplasmicreticulum

I band

(b)

(a)

Page 12: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

William Einthoven – invented the electrocardiograph and awarded the nobel

prize in 1924

Page 13: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.16: An electrocardiogram tracing (lead I), p. 696.

Sinoatrialnode

Atrioventricularnode

QRS complex

Atrialdepolarization

Ventriculardepolarization

Ventricularrepolarization

P-QInterval S-T

Segment

P

R

Q

S

T

Q-TInterval

Time (s) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Page 14: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart
Page 15: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart
Page 16: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart
Page 17: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart
Page 18: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.17: The sequence of excitation of the heart related to the deflection waves of an ECG tracing, p. 696.

SA node generates impulse;atrial excitation begins

Impulse delayedat AV node

Impulse passes toheart apex; ventricularexcitation begins

Ventricular excitationcomplete

SA nodeAV node Purkinje

fibersBundlebranches

Page 19: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.19: Areas of the thoracic surface where the heart sounds can be best detected, p. 697.

Sounds of tricuspid valve are typically heard inright sternal margin of 5th intercostal space;variations include over sternum or over left sternal margin in 5th intercostal space.

Sounds of aortic valve areheard in 2nd intercostal space atright sternal margin.

Sounds of pulmonary valve are heard in 2nd intercostalspace at left sternal margin.

Sounds of mitral valve areheard over heart apex, in 5thintercostal space in line with middle of clavicle.

Page 20: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.24: Development of the human heart during week 4, p. 705.

Heart twists

Arterial end

Venous end

Atrium

Ventricle

AortaSuperiorvena cava

Inferiorvena cava

DuctusarteriosusPulmonarytrunkForamenovale

Ventricle

Endothelialtubes beginto fuse Arterial end

Venous end

Ventricle

Tubularheart

4a

4

3

21

(d)

(e)

(a) (b) (c)

Page 21: Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7eby Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Figure 18.25: Three examples of congenital heart defects, p. 708.

Occurs inabout 1 in every500 births

Occurs inabout 1 in every1500 births

Narrowedaorta

Occurs inabout 1 in every2000 births

Ventricular septal defect.The superior part of the inter-ventricular septum fails to form;thus, blood mixes betweenthe two ventricles, but becausethe left ventricle is stronger, more blood is shunted fromleft to right.

(a) Coarctation of the aorta.A part of the aorta is narrowed,increasing the workload onthe left ventricle.

(b) Tetralogy of Fallot. Multiple defects (tetra = four): Pulmonary trunk too narrow and pulmonary valve stenosed, resulting in a hypertrophied right ventricle; ventricular septal defect; aorta opens from both ventricles; wall of right ventricle thickened from overwork.

(c)