chapter 14 pp.ppt motivation

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    Motivation

    Any influence that triggers, directs ormaintains behavior

    Research is based upon different variablesthat affect motivation

    Individual Differences

    Organizational ContextsManager Behaviors

    Process Theories

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    Content Versus Process

    Motivation Theories

    Content theories

    explain why people have different needs at

    different times

    Process theories

    describe the processes through which needsare translated into behavior

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    AlderfersERG Theory

    MaslowsNeed Hierarchy

    Content Theories of

    Motivation

    Self-

    Actualization

    Esteem

    Belongingness

    Safety

    Physiological

    Growth

    Existence

    HerzbergsTheory

    Motivators

    Hygienes

    Need for

    Achievement

    Need forPower

    Need for

    Affiliation

    McClellandsLearned Needs

    Relatedness

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    Maslows Hierarchy

    Each individual has needs, or feelings ofdeficiency that drive their behavior

    Once a need is satisficed, then it is nolonger motivating

    Needs are in a hierarchy that an individual

    moves up as they satisfy levels of needs

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    Practical Implications of

    Content Theories

    People have different needs atdifferent times

    Offer employees a choice of rewards -- a flexible reward system

    Do not rely too heavily on financialrewards

    they mainly address lower level needs

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    Maslows Hierarchy

    Each individual has needs, or feelings ofdeficiency that drive their behavior

    Once a need is satisfied, then it is nolonger motivating

    Needs are in a hierarchy that an individual

    moves up as they satisfy levels of needs

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    Maslows Hierarchy

    Adapted from Figure 14.2

    Self-

    Actualization

    Esteem

    Affiliation

    Security

    Physiological

    14.3

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    Levels of Needs

    Physiological/Survival needs

    Food, Clothing, Shelter, Air

    SecurityFeel safe, absence of pain, threat, or illness

    Affiliation

    friendship, company, love, belonging

    first clear step up from physical needs

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    Need levels (cont.)

    Esteem Needs

    self-respect, achievement, recognition,

    prestigecues a persons worth

    Self-Actualization

    personal growth, self-fulfillment, realizationof full potential

    Where are YOU on the hierarchy???

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    Alderfers ERG

    Consolidates Maslow into 3 categories

    Existence-physiological and security

    Relatedness-affiliation

    Growth-esteem and self-actualization

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    ERG Model of Motivation

    Adapted from Figure 14.3

    Frustration-Regression Satisfaction-Progression

    Growth Needs

    Relatedness Needs

    Existence Needs

    14.4

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    Frustration-Regression

    Differs from Maslow

    When unable to satisfy upper level needs,

    the individual will revert to satisfyinglower level needs

    Interesting point from research....growth

    stimulates growth

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    McClellands Learned

    Needs

    Needs are acquired through interactionwith environment

    Not a higherarchy, but degrees of eachtype of need or motive

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    Types of Needs

    N Ach-motive to meet some standard ofexcellence or to compete

    N Aff-motive to develop and maintainclose and meaningful relationships

    N Pow-desire to influence and control

    others and the environment

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    Herzbergs Two Factor

    Theory

    Some variable prevent job dissatisfactionand some variables produce motivation

    Hygiene factors-basic needs that willprevent dissatisfaction

    light, temperature, pay, parking

    Motivatorswhen present cause high levels of motivation

    interesting work, advancement, growth, etc.

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    Herzbergs Two Factor

    TheoryHigh

    Motivation

    High

    Hygienes

    Adapted from Figure 14.4

    Low High

    Motivators

    Low

    Low Motivation

    Dissatisfaction

    Low Dissatisfaction

    14.6

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    Process Theories

    Reinforcement Theory

    Expectancy

    Equity

    Justice Theory

    Goal Setting

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    Types of Reinforcement

    Positive Reinforcement-rewards

    Punishment-Application of a negative

    outcomeNegative Reinforcement-removal of

    negative outcomes when behavior is

    performedExtinction-absence of reinforcement

    (removal of positive reinforcement)

    Drawbacks

    14 9

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    Reinforcement Process

    Source: From L. W. Porter and E. E. Lawler III.

    Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Homewood,Ill.: Irwin, 1968, p. 165. Used with permission

    Adapted from Figure 14.6

    Stimulus(situation)

    Response(behavior)

    Consequences(rewards and punishments)

    Future Behavior

    14.9

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    Types of Rewards

    Extrinsic-external rewards such as money,fringe benefits, job security

    Intrinsic-internal satisfaction outcomesfrom doing work

    Satisfaction-employees attitude about

    work situationsIntrinsic motivation and Intrigue??????

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    Equity Theory

    Individuals try to find a balance betweentheir inputs and outputs relative to a

    referent otherHowever, a referent other is not always

    present

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    Results of Inequity

    Equity-I am being treated fairly

    Under-rewarded-will look to increase

    rewards, or decrease inputs to matchrewards

    Over-rewarded-will change referent to

    match cognitions or increase inputsLeaving and distortion

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    Reinforcement Theory

    Behaviors are functions of consequencesthat they produce

    If a behavior is followed by a pleasantexperience it will be repeated

    In order to change behaviors the

    consequences must be changed

    O d V

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    Overreward Versus

    Underreward Inequity

    YouComparisonOther

    Outcomes

    Inputs

    Outcomes

    Inputs

    Overreward

    Inequity

    Outcomes

    Inputs

    Outcomes

    Inputs

    UnderrewardInequity

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    Goal Setting Theory

    Assignment of specific, moderatelydifficult, and providing feedback will

    provide motivation to workEmployee participation

    Receive rewards

    Provide competencies for achievement

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    High

    TaskPerform

    ance

    Low Moderate Challenging Impossible

    Area ofOptimal

    Goal

    Difficulty

    Effect of Goal Difficulty on

    Performance

    Goal Difficulty

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    Expectancy Theory

    Combines goal setting and reinforcementtheories

    Three questions drive motivationWith effort can I perform?

    With performance, will I be rewarded?

    Do I value the rewards?

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    Terms

    Expectancy-belief that effort will lead toperformance

    Instrumentality-performance leads torewards (does performance level matter)

    Valence-value of rewards

    E t Th f

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    E-to-P

    Expectancy

    P-to-O

    Expectancy

    Outcomes

    & Valences

    Outcome 1+ or -

    Effort Performance

    Outcome 3+ or -

    Outcome 2+ or -

    Expectancy Theory of

    Motivation

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    Justice Theory

    Procedural Justice - fairness issuesconcerning the methods, mechanisms,

    and processes used to determineoutcomes

    Distributive Justice - concerns the fairness

    of outcomes, includes equity theoryInteractional Justice - concerns the way

    one is treated informally during

    procedures and distributions

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    How they interact

    Procedural justice and interactional justicecan buffer inequity to some level

    Above that threshold, procedural andinteractional justice do not matter

    If equity is present, then interactional and

    procedural do not matterDoes order of procedural or interactionaljustice matter?