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Chapter 13 Substance Abuse. Substance Abuse: What Is It, and Why Is It Important? Substance abuse: the overuse, misuse, or addiction to any chemical substance

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Text of Chapter 13 Substance Abuse. Substance Abuse: What Is It, and Why Is It Important? Substance abuse:...

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  • Chapter 13 Substance Abuse
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  • Substance Abuse: What Is It, and Why Is It Important? Substance abuse: the overuse, misuse, or addiction to any chemical substance There are many forms of substance abuse, including the single greatest preventable cause of deaths in the United States
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  • Key Terms Drugs Recreational drugs Drug misuse Drug abuse Psychological dependence Tolerance
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  • Drugs and the Law The lines between drugs that are legal and illegal can change. Prohibition LSD and heroin were developed for medical use Marijuana is legal in some situations in 12 U.S. states, but illegal at the Federal level Many drugs that are legal can still be very harmful and easy to abuse (alcohol, tobacco, prescription drugs)
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  • Effects of Drug Use Physiological changes Mental dependence Conflicts in interpersonal relationships Drug-related crime Creation of treatment facilities Loss of individual productivity Care for children of drug-dependent parents Policing of illicit drug availability Treatment of medical complications
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  • Sociocultural Dimensions Substance Use and Abuse Factors increasing likelihood of drug abuse Significant life stressors Sexual and physical abuse Low self-esteem, self-deprecation, anxiety, conflict Lower socioeconomic status
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  • Legal Dimensions Illicit drug use disproportionately affects people of color. Hispanic and African American drug offenders have a greater chance of being sentenced to prison than white offenders; African Americans also receive longer prison sentences than do white offenders. Compared to 35 years ago, nearly 10 times the women are currently incarcerated for drug use Drug use during pregnancy: new laws focusing on punishment rather than treatment
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  • Economic Dimensions: Illicit Drugs Illicit drug use causes about 50,000 deaths a year and costs $200 billion a year in the U.S. (includes direct and indirect effects) $26 billion a year in federal spending to prevent drug use, offer treatment services, fight drug trafficking, and improve drug enforcement and development in other countries
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  • Economic Dimensions: Legal drugs Tobacco use causes about $200 billion in economic damages every year (directly and indirectly) and about 440,000 deaths per year (9x deaths from illicit drugs) Pack-a-day smokers spend more than $1,000/year on cigarettes Economic impact of alcohol abuse: $225 billion a year, mostly through lost productivity
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  • Who Is Smoking? Most smokers begin their habits during the years of high school, often before it is legal to do so.
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  • Legal Dimensions of Tobacco Use Examples of recent smoking legislation include: Taxes (2009 SCHIP increase) Youth access Tobacco product vending machine sales Advertising and promotion Discuss: What are the short-term and long-term goals of each of these efforts? What are the pros and cons for each?
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  • Physiological Effects of Cigarette Smoking Health Consequences Cigarette smoking during pregnancy also has serious consequences for a growing fetus.
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  • U.S. Deaths (Male and Female) Attributable to Cigarette Smoking Cigarette smoking is a major cause of heart disease, cancer (lung and other kinds), and respiratory diseases.
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  • Quitting Tobacco Often the best decision a woman can make for her health Not easy, but it can be done (often on 2 nd, 3 rd, or 4 th attempt) Many options available: nicotine replacement therapy, medications, support groups, and therapy. 1-800 QUIT NOW for more resources
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  • Alcohol Alcohol: a colorless liquid obtained by fermentation of a sugar- containing liquid (ethyl alcohol) Moderate drinking (1 drink a day for women) may reduce the risk for heart disease. Heavier drinking (especially binge drinking) can have serious harmful effects on health.
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  • Epidemiological Trends and Issues 47% of females age 12 and older report current alcohol use 57% of women aged 1825 report current alcohol use Underage drinking: 24% of female teenagers drank within the past month 14% engaged in recent binge drinking 4% had many recent binge drinking episodes Alcohol use is higher in the Northeast (58%), Midwest (55%), West (51%), South (48%)
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  • Complications from Chronic Alcohol Consumption Cancer Cardiovascular effects Organ damage Diabetes Fetal alcohol syndrome Impotency and infertility Diminished immunity Sleep disturbances
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  • Warning signs of alcoholism Alcoholism Having five or more drinks per day Needing a drink to start off the day Denial of alcohol problem Changing brands to control drinking Depression and paranoia Failure to recall what happened during a drinking episode Dramatic mood swings Doings things while drinking and regretting them afterward
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  • Alcohol Use: Gender Differences Men metabolize alcohol faster than women A persons size also influences the effects of a given amount of alcohol Hormones affect alcohol metabolism Alcohol consumption can affect pregnancy
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  • Illicit Drugs Stimulants (caffeine, cocaine, crack, amphetamines, anabolic steroids) Depressants and antianxiety drugs (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines such as Xanax and Valium) Cannabis (marijuana, hashish) Psychedelics and hallucinogens (LSD) Narcotics (opium, heroine, morphine, codeine) Inhalants Designer drugs (MDMA or ecstasy)
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  • Epidemiological Trends and Issues Illicit Drugs
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  • Who Uses Illicit Drugs*? About 45% of Americans drug over the age of 12 have tried an illicit drug. Women are less likely to have tried a drug than men (41% vs 50%). Whites (49%) and Native Americans (59%) are more likely to have tried a drug than people who are black (43%), Asian (24%) or Hispanic (35%). About 8% of Americans (6% of women) have used an illicit drug in the past month. *Illicit drugs include marijuana, cocaine, crack, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, methamphetamines, and prescription drugs for nonmedical purposes. Source: SAMHSA
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  • Physiological Effects of Drugs Stimulants: Increase heart rate, blood pressure, strength of heart contractions, blood glucose level, muscle tension Depressants: Relax the CNS and decrease functions Cannabis: Causes alterations in perception and reactions; increases heart rate Psychedelics and hallucinogens: Alter perception, thoughts, reality, mood, sensation, heart rate, body temperature; possible acute anxiety attack
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  • Physiological Effects of Drugs Narcotics: Slow respiration, pain levels; high potential for abuse; over time, heart infections, skin abscesses, lung congestion Inhalants: Slow bodily functions; over time, liver failure, kidney failure, respiratory failure, destruction of bone marrow and skeletal muscles Designer drugs: Chronic use may cause brain damage, significant impairment in visual and verbal memory
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  • Prescription Drugs Three classes most commonly abused Opioids prescribed for pain, which include morphine, codeine, oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet, Percodan) Depressants for anxiety and sleep disorders, such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates (Valium, Librium, Xanax) Stimulants for sleep disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Dexedrine, Ritalin) Every year, more than 6 million Americans reported using prescription drugs for nonmedical purposes.
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  • Drug Dependency Treatment Dimensions Detoxification: Supervised withdrawal with or without medication Therapeutic communities: Highly structured, drug- free environments Outpatient drug-free programs: Self-help programs such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA) or Pills Anonymous (PA) Gender differences in treatment programs: Only about 60% of U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities provide special programs or services for women
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  • Informed Decision Making Personal Responsibilities Virtually everyone has used some drug at one point or another Have you ever noticed a harmful consequence of a drug you ingested? What other consequences can drug use bring? How do you decide how to keep yourself at a safe, acceptable level?