Chapter 11: East Asia

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Chapter 11: East Asia. Rowntree, et. al. - Modified by Joe Naumann, UMSL. Chapter 11: East Asia (Fig. 11.1). Growing competition. JAKOTA TRIANGLE JA pan south KO rea & TA iwan. Learning Objectives. Learn about China, Japan, North and South Korea, and Taiwan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Chapter 11: East AsiaRowntree, et. al. - Modified by Joe Naumann, UMSL

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  • Chapter 11:East Asia(Fig. 11.1)JAKOTA TRIANGLE JApan south KOrea & TAiwanGrowing competition

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  • Learning ObjectivesLearn about China, Japan, North and South Korea, and TaiwanUnderstand the sources of cultural cohesiveness in E. AsiaUnderstand current and projected economic development in E. AsiaYou should understand the following concepts and models:Become familiar with the physical, demographic, cultural, political and economic aspects of East AsiaUnderstand the following concepts and models-Confucianism-Geomancy-Ideographic writing-Three Gorges Project-Marxism-Conurbation-Loess-JAKOTA Triangle

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  • IntroductionEast Asia is the most populous region in the world China is the most populous country, and the oldest continuous national cultureEastern China is undergoing rapid economic developmentChina and Japan have been rivals from time to timeEast Asia has experienced colonization, and has seen both internal and international conflictJapan is extremely wealthy, but poverty may be found in parts of the regionEast Asia is one of the core areas of the world economy and an emerging center of political power

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  • Relative Location

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  • CHINAS RELATIVE LOCATION AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVEISOLATIONNatural protective barriersDistanceInward looking (central kingdom) with minor incidences of cultural diffusionEffects of one oceanA history of emperors who restricted use of the coastline, except in local circumstancesToday the ocean is playing a major role in the economic (and cultural) transformation of coastal China.

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  • Environmental Geography: Resource Pressures in a Crowded LandFlooding, Dam-Building, and Related Issues Chinas Yangtze River is an important resource (3rd largest volume)The Three Gorges ControversyChinese government wants to dam the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River with the largest hydroelectric dam in the worldPurpose: control floods & generate electricityProblems: Will jeopardize animal species, flood a major scenic attraction, and displace up to 2 million people

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  • Three Gorges Dam Under Construction

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  • Environmental Geography: Resource Pressures in a Crowded LandFlooding in Northern ChinaNorthern China Plain has long been plagued with floods and droughtsWorst floods caused by Huang He (Yellow River)Huang He carries a huge sediment load (suspended clay, silt, sand); is the worlds muddiest riverMany dikes, but its still the river of Chinas sorrow

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  • Environmental Geography: Resource Pressures in a Crowded Land (cont.)Flooding, Dam-Building, Related Issues (cont.)Erosion on the Loess PlateauHuang Hes sediment burden from the Loess PlateauLoess a fine, wind-blown deposited materialLight tan color accounts for the old name, Yellow river and Yellow SeaLoess is fertile, but vulnerable to erosion when plowed Loess Plateau - one of the poorest parts of China

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  • LAND DEGREDATION

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  • Environmental Geography: Resource Pressures in a Crowded Land (cont.)Other East Asian Environmental ProblemsForests and DeforestationLittle conservation of forests in China; much more in JapanReforestation programs have been unsuccessfulSubstantial forests found in the far north and along Tibetan borderChina may need to import wood products for development

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  • EnvironmentalIssues in East Asia(Fig. 11.2)

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  • Environmental Geography: Resource Pressures in a Crowded Land (cont.)Other East Asian Environmental Problems (cont.)Mounting PollutionChinas development causing water pollution, toxic waste dumping, and air pollution from the burning of high sulfur coalJapan, Taiwan, South Korea have implemented stringent pollution controls and established pollution-generating industries outside of their countries to reduce pollutionEnvironmental Issues in JapanJapan has a relatively clean environmentEnvironmental restrictions, cleanup and pollution exporting Pollution exporting: Location of their dirtier factories elsewhere in the world

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  • Environmental Geography: Resource Pressures in a Crowded Land (cont.)East Asias Physical GeographyLarge area gives it large regional climatic variabilitySimilar latitude extent to U.S.Climate of southern China like Florida; climate of northern China like CanadaJapans Physical EnvironmentSubtropical in the south and nearly subarctic in the north - Climatic variations in the east and west85% of the country is mountainousJapans forests come from favorable climate, history of forest conservationLimited alluvial plains used for intensive agricultureKanto Plain, Kansai Basin, and Nobi Basin

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  • Physical Geography of East Asia (Fig. 11.6)

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  • PHYSIOGRAPHY

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  • Environmental Geography: Resource Pressures in a Crowded Land (cont.)East Asias Physical Geography (cont.)Taiwans EnvironmentCentral and eastern regions are rugged and mountainous; west is dominated by an alluvial plain; mild winter climate; still has extensive forestsChinese EnvironmentsSouthern China: rugged mountains and hills interspersed with lowland basinsNorthern China: Gobi Desert, North China Plain, Loess PlateauKorean LandscapesMountainous country with scattered alluvial basinsSouth Korea has better farmlands than North Korea

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  • ClimateMapofEast Asia(Fig. 11.7)

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  • Comparing Size & Latitude

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  • CLIMATE COMPARISON

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  • WarmCold

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  • DryWet

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  • Population and Settlement: A Realm of Crowded Lowland BasinsJapanese Settlement and Agricultural PatternsJapans Agriculture LandsLargely limited to countrys coastal plains & interior basinsRice, fruit, and vegetable cultivation Settlement Patterns3 largest metropolitan areas: Tokyo, Osaka, and NagoyaPopulation density: 870 per square milesMostly crowded in mainland industrial beltJapans Urban-Agricultural DilemmaJapanese cities located in agricultural lowlandsRestricted living space in urban areasNational importance of rice self-sufficiency

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  • Population Map of East Asia (Fig. 11.14)

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  • POPULATION COMPARISONSMILLIONS

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  • JAPANS AGE DISTRIBUTIONAGE GROUPPERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION0-14 Years 18.4%14.9%15-24 Years15.4%11.6%25-64 Years54.5%49.6%65+ Years11.7%23.9% ______________________________________________________ 100%100%19902025SOURCE: UNITED NATIONS WORLD POPULATIONPROSPECTS 1990 (NEW YORK: UNITED NATIONS, 1991)

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  • DECLINING JAPANESE POPULATION

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  • Population and Settlement: A Realm of Crowded Lowland Basins (cont.)Settlement and Agricultural Patterns in China, Taiwan, KoreaChina is only 30% urban; Japan, Taiwan, Korea urbanChinas Agricultural RegionsRice dominant in the south; wheat, millet, sorghum in the northNorth China Plain is one of the most thoroughly anthropogenic landscapes in the world (anthropogenic landscape one that has been heavily transformed by human activities)Manchuria thoroughly settled; Loess Plateau thinly settledSettlement and Agricultural Patterns in Korea and TaiwanKorea densely populated (70 million); 1,150 per square mileTaiwan is most densely; 22 million; 1,500 per square mil

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  • KOREA: NORTH-SOUTH CONTRASTSNORTH KOREA55% of the land, 1/3 of the population, extremely ruralAntiquated state enterprisesInefficient, non-productive agricultureLimited trade former Soviet Union and ChinaSOUTH KOREA45% of the land, 2/3s of the population, highly urbanizedModern factoriesIntensive, increasingly mechanized agricultureExtensive trade US, Japan, and Western Europe

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  • THE KOREASPOPULATION 23,700,000 50,200,000GNP (BILLIONS)$ 21.3$ 508.3GNP/CAPITA $ 920$ 8,600AGRICULTURERESTRICTIVEGOOD (as % of GNP) 25 % 8 %(% work force) 36 % 21 %NorthSouth

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  • TAIWAN

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  • TAIWANHistorical background:A Chinese province for centuriesColonized by Japan in 1895Returned to China > WWII1949 Chinese Nationalists (supported by the US) fled from the mainland and established the Republic of China (ROC)Territory - approximately 14,000 Square milesPopulation 23.7 million77% urbanized

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  • Taiwan & S. Korea(ISSUES AND CONCERNS)Vulnerability to Global Market FluctuationsLand Use CompetitionUrban ProblemsEnvironmental DegradationPolitical QuestionsPost Industrial Economy

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  • In China Agriculture Remains Important: Rice in south & wheat in North

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  • Population and Settlement: A Realm of Crowded Lowland Basins (cont.)East Asian Agriculture and Resource Procurement in Global ContextGlobal Dimensions of Japanese Agriculture and ForestryJapan is one of the worlds largest food importersImports wood products, oil, coal, and mineralsJapans basic resource dependency is unusualThe Global Dimensions of Chinese AgricultureChinas agricultural self-sufficiency has been reduced by the following:Rapid economic growth, changing food preferences, and loss of land to industrial and residential development

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  • Population and Settlement: A Realm of Crowded Lowland Basins (cont.)Urbanization in East AsiaEarly urbanization, but the region was overwhelmingly rural until end of World War IIChinese CitiesOldest cities were fortified; houses built around courtyards, narrow alleywaysColonial period changed urban form, emphasized coastal citiesBeijing (13 million) capital during the Manchu period (16441912)

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  • Population and Settlement: A Realm of Crowded Lowland Basins (cont.)Urbanization in East Asia (cont.)City Systems of Japan, and South KoreaSouth Korea noted for urban primacyUrban primacy the concentration of urban population in a single cityJapan displays a pattern of superconurbationSuperconurbation: Megalopolis; a huge zone of coalesced metropolitan areasTokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto make Megalopolis

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  • Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Confucian Realm?Unifying Cultural CharacteristicsThe Chinese Writing SystemIdeographic writing: form of writing in which symbol (ideograph or character) represents primarily an idea or thing rather than a soundDisadvantage: difficult to learn large number of charactersAdvantage: speakers of different languages can use the same writing system

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  • Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Confucian Realm?Korean ModificationsIn 1400s, Koreans implemented their own writing systemJapanese ModificationsKanji: characters borrowed from ChinaHiragana: Japanese syllabary, in which symbol represents a syllable (combination vowel and consonant sound, like RA, or MI, or KO)Katakana: for spelling words of foreign origin

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  • Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Confucian Realm? (cont.)Unifying Cultural Characteristics (cont.)The Confucian LegacyConfucianism: the philosophy developed by Confucius has a strong influence on the regionGreater influence in China and Korea than in Japan551- 479 BC- took on spiritual proportions after his death- ConfucianismFocused on suffering of common folks in Zhou dynastyDates from 6th Century B.C. to foster social stabilityEmphasized that human virtues, rather than godly connections, should determine a persons place in societyObedience to authority; authority figures must act in a caring manner; education also important

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  • Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Confucian Realm? (cont.)Teachings have dominated chinese life and thought for more than 20 centuriesModern Role of Confucian IdeasIn early 1900s, lagging development in East Asia raised questions about value of Confucian ideasCommunism hasnt been able to completely negate its influence in ChinaToday, economic growth suggest that Confucian support for education and social stability are an advantageVariable development in the region points to middle ground

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  • CHINESE PERSPECTIVESOne of the worlds great culture hearthsContinuous civilization for over 4,000 yearsView of China as the center of the civilized worldEastern vs. Western biasInward lookingClosed society

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  • Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Confucian Realm? (cont.)Religious Unity and Diversity in East AsiaMahayana BuddhismDiffused to China from India by the second century A.D.; widespread throughout the regionNonexclusive: may be followed by people professing faith in other religionsSimplifies quest for total enlightenment (nirvana) with beings who refuse divine union for themselves to help others spiritually

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  • Buddhist Temple

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  • Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Confucian Realm? (cont.)Religious Unity and Diversity in East Asia (cont.)ShintoClosely bound to Japanese nationality Beliefs about harmony of nature and its connection to human existenceA place- and nature-centered religion

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  • Shintoism

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  • Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Co...