Chap16: The Transatlantic Economic, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

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Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage, AP 9th Edition.MORE NOTES at the repository at http://supernova.dyndns.org/csmfoc/

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Page 1: Chap16: The Transatlantic Economic, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

Chapter 16: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade

Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

October 20, 2007

Two separate but interrelated rivalries existed in Europe in the mid-18thcentury: between Austria and Prussia for Central Europe and between GreatBritain and France for commerce and colonies. The wars were long and expen-sive. Ultimately, Prussia won Central Europe and Great Britain established aworld empire. The expense of these wars led every major European governmentafter 1763 Peace of Paris to establish new tax policies. These reforms led to theAmerican Revolution, enlightened absolutism on Continent, continuing �nancialcrisis in France, and Spanish reform in America.

1 Periods of European Overseas Empires

Four stages of outside world contact since Renaissance.

1. Discovery, exploration, conquest, and settlement of New World.

(a) Also included penetration of Southeast Asian markets by Portugaland Netherlands.

(b) Ended by 1700.

2. Mercantile Empires

(a) Rivalry among Spain, France, Great Britain.

(b) Created large navies and resulted in many naval wars.

(c) These war became linked to Continental wars.

(d) Slavery fundamental in �rst two stages.

i. Slave population blacks imported from Africa or born to blackslaves.

ii. Three centuries of slave trade with West Africa.

iii. Slaves brought their culture.

(e) Atlantic economy and society were European and African. NativeAmericans marginalized.


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(f) Both British and Spanish colonies declared independence.

(g) Ended during 1820s.

3. New formal empires�direct European administration of indigenous inAfrica and Asia.

(a) Also included new European settlement: Australia, New Zealand,South Africa, Algeria.

(b) Based in trade, national honor, Christian missionary, military.

(c) Formally based on free labor, but indigenous still treated harshly.

4. Decolonization (1950+)

5. Huge disproportional impact in 450 years before decolonization.

(a) Treated indigenous as inferior.

(b) Destroy existing culture due to greed, religion, politics. These ac-tions remain signi�cant factors in relationship between Europe andits colonies and U.S. today.

(c) Ships and gunpowder facilitate supremacy.

2 Mercantile Empires

1. Navy and merchant marine key to mercantile empires�empires for pro�t,not settlement.

2. Spain controlled mainland South America (except Brazil, Dutch Guiana).

(a) Controlled Florida in North America.

(b) Control Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, eastern His-paniola (Dominican Republic).

3. British controlled North Atlantic seaboard, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland,Bermuda, Jamaica, Barbados. Trading posts on Indian subcontinent.

4. French controlled St. Lawrence River valley, Ohio and Mississippi Rivervalleys. Western Hispaniola (Haiti), Guadeloupe, Martinique, posts onIndia and West Africa.

5. India seemed to be huge potential European market and source of spiceand calico.

6. Dutch control Suriname (Dutch Guiana), Cope Colony (South Africa), SriLanka, Bengal.

(a) Most importantly, controlled Javan trade.


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(b) Opened these markets in 1600s.

(c) Huge empire disproportionate to wealth, importance, and size ofUnited Netherlands.

(d) Daring sailors and technological innovations facilitate.

2.1 Mercantilist Goals

1. Mercantilism invented by later critics and opponents.

2. Regarded gold and silver as ultimate measure of wealth.

3. Assumed scarcity and limits, zero-sum game. Only modest growth possi-ble. Predated industrial/agricultural revolution.

4. Both home and colonists see colony as inferior partner.

(a) Exclusive trade.

(b) Governments use navigation laws, tari�s, bounties to prohibit tradewith other monarchs.

(c) National monopoly.

5. Messy in practice; by 18th century, mercantilist assumptions fallen.

(a) Spain could not produce enough for South America.

(b) Production in British American colonies challenged European indus-tries.

(c) English colonists could buy sugar more cheaply from French WestIndies.

(d) Everybody hoped to break others' monopoly.

(e) �Golden age of smugglers.� Governments could not control subjects'actions.

2.2 French-British Rivalry

1. Settlers coveted St. Lawrence River valley, upper New England, OhioRiver valley.

2. Con�ict over fur trade, �shing, alliance with Natives.

3. Heart of rivalry in West Indies.

(a) Jewels of empire: tobacco, cotton, indigo, co�ee, sugar.

(b) Unlimited demand for sugar; for a time, unlimited riches to planta-tion owner.

(c) Slavery essential for pro�t.


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4. India

(a) Traded through charter companies (legal monopolies).

(b) English East India Company, French Compagnie des Indes.

(c) Indian trade only marginal, but still tried to make pro�t.

(d) Some see India as springboard to larger markets: China.

(e) Trading posts called factories, granted by Indian governments.

(f) Indian states decayed in mid-18th.

i. Joseph Dupleix (1697-1763) (French) and Robert Clive (1725-1774) encouraged �lling power vacuum.

ii. Each company began to take government powers.

5. Dutch maintained monopoly in Indonesia.

3 The Spanish Colonial System

Had rigid laws, but actual practice was informal. Monopoly frequently breached.Primary purpose until 1750s was to supply Spain with metals.

3.1 Colonial Government

1. Council of the Indies and monarch nominated viceroys of New Spain(Mexico) and Peru.

2. Viceroys executed laws issued by Council of the Indies.

3. Viceroyalty divided into audiencia (subordinate judicial council). Manylocal o�cials. Corregidores led municipal councils.

4. O�cers represent patronage. Monarchy usually gave positions to Spanish-born.

5. Hierarchical; nearly all power �ow down.

3.2 Trade Regulations

1. Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in Seville regulated New Worldtrade.

(a) Only Cádiz port authorized for Am. trade.

(b) Most in�uential institution.

(c) Worked closely with Consulado (Merchant Guild) of Seville.

2. Complicated system maintain monopoly.


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(a) Flota (commerce �eet) escorted by warships carry Spanish merchan-dise to few speci�c ports (Portobello, Veracruz, Cartagena).

(b) No authorized ports on Paci�c.

(c) Loaded with bullion, spent winter in forti�ed Caribbean ports, sailedback.

(d) Imperfect but external trade illegal.

(e) Colonists forbidden to directly trade with each other.

3.3 Colonial Reform Under the Spanish Bourbon Monar-chs

1. Philip 5 (r. 1700-1746) tried to use French administrative skill to re-assert monopoly.

(a) Spanish patrol vessels tried to suppress American smuggling.

(b) Led to war with England in 1739.

(c) Established viceroyalty of New Granada.

(d) Wars exposed vulnerability of Spanish empire.

(e) Defeated in 1763. Convinced that system had to be reformed.

2. Charles 3 (r. 1759-1788) � most important imperial reformer.

(a) Royal ministers instead of councils.

(b) 1765� abolished Seville monopoly; opened ports other than Cádiz.

(c) Opened more South American and Caribbean ports.

(d) Authorized trade between American Spanish ports.

(e) 1776 � Viceroyalty of La Plata.

(f) Introduce intendant system.

(g) Reforms worked to stimulate economy.

3. Reforms brought empire under more direct Spanish control.

(a) Peninsulares enter New World to �ll posts.

(b) More merchants went.

(c) Organized to bene�t Spain; creoles (European descent born in colony)were second-class. Their resentment would lead to rebellion.


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4 Black African Slavery, The Plantation System,

and the Atlantic Economy

1. Slavery exist in parts of Europe since ancient; little stigma until 1700s.Mediterranean traditional sole source of slaves.

2. After Ottoman conquest Constantinople in 1453, no white slaves ex-ported.

3. Portuguese import African slaves from Canary Islands and West Africa.

4. 16th century +: slave labor became fundamental social and economic.Africa(ns) drawn inextricably into West.

4.1 The African Presence in the Americas

1. Severe labor shortage; settlers did not want to work, Native Americansdied.

2. Spanish and Portuguese quickly turn to slaves. English colonies moreslowly.

3. Slave markets on West African Coast from Senegambia to Angola.

(a) Political and military conditions and wars in Africa create slave sup-ply.

(b) Dynamic African societies exercising power relations by enslavingother Africans.

4. The West Indies, Brazil, and Sugar

(a) Far more slaves into West Indies, Brazil than North America. Overa century of slavery before 1619 Jamestown slaves.

(b) Population equaled or surpassed whites in multi-racial communities.

(c) In Spanish colonies, slavery declined.

(d) Increased in Brazil, Caribbean for sugar and gold mining. Prosperityand slavery went hand in hand.

i. Early 1700s: 20,000 new slaves / yr.

ii. 1725: 90% Jamaica black slaves.

(e) Low fertility rate of slaves and high death rate.

i. Continuous import needed.

ii. New African arrivals characteristic; brought African culture toinfuse.


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4.2 Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy

1. Portuguese and Spanish most involved in slave trade in 16th; Dutch in17th; England in late 17th and 18th.

2. Triangle trade:

(a) European goods (often gun) traded for slaves in West Africa.

(b) Slaves taken to West Indies; traded for sugar and tropical products;shipped to Europe.

(c) Also went to New England for �sh, rum, and lumber to trade forsugar in West Indies.

3. Cotton, tobacco, and sugar (and their consumer goods) all depended onslavery.

4. Political turmoil in African like civil wars in Kingdom of Kongo and inGold coast area increased slave supply.

(a) Dispute over succession.

(b) Some captives sold to slave traders at ports.

(c) African leaders conducted slave raids to raise money for weapons.

(d) Wars often deep in interior; still a�ect development of America.

4.3 The Experience of Slavery

1. Perhaps > 9M slaves � largest forced intercontinental migration in his-tory.

2. Unspeakably bad passage; cramped, bad food, disease.

3. Always more men→ could not preserve traditional extended family. Later,tried to recreate even though not actual family.

4. Owners preferred old slaves/descendants. Sold for more.

5. New slaves seasoning. Discipline; understand no longer free.

(a) New names.

(b) Learn new skills.

(c) Learn European language (to an extent).

(d) Some apprenticed to older slaves.

(e) Others broken by working of �eld gangs.

(f) Generally, North American owners only bought recently-arrived slavesseasoned in Indies.


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6. Language and Culture

(a) Plantation isolated; but could visit other slaves on market days.Thus, recently arrived slaves could sustain their own culture for awhile.

(b) More people spoke African language south of W. Indies. Take overtwo generation for European languag.

(c) Language tie → solidarity. Organized nations.

i. Basis for African religious communities.

A. Some stayed Muslim.

B. Organized lay religious brotherhoods that did charity in slavecommunity.

ii. Elect kings and queens.

iii. Enabled communication during revolts.

A. South Carolina 1739 revolt believed to have communicatedthrough drums → tried to suppress drums.

7. Daily Life

(a) Di�ered from colonies.

(b) Portugeuse fewest protection.

(c) Spanish church tried to protect, but more concerned about Native.

(d) British and French had slave codes, but more assuring dominance.Limited protection.

(e) Legislation intended to prevent revolt.

(f) Corporal punishment permitted.

(g) Forbiddent to gather in large group.

(h) Marriages not recognized by law; children belonged to master of par-ent.

(i) Hard agricultural labor, poor diet and housing.

(j) Families could be separated.

(k) Today, accepted that life sucked equally for most slaves.

8. Conversion to Christianity

(a) Spanish, French, Portugeuse: Catholic.

(b) English: Protestant (various denomination).

(c) Slaves must accept society and natural hierarchy of master at top.

(d) Organized African religion disappeared.

(e) Some practices survived: belief of nature, cosmos, witchers, conjur-ers, healers, voodoo.


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(f) Like Native Americans, crushed non-European values in con-text of New World economics and society.

9. European Racial Attitudes

(a) European settler consider blacks savage.

(b) Others look down because they were slaves.

(c) Culture negative connotation of black.

(d) Created unique society dependant on slave labor and racial di�erence.Had not existed before.

(e) Ended:

i. 1794 � Slave Revolt of St. Dominique

ii. 1807 � British outlaw slave trade

iii. Latin wars of independence

iv. 1863 � Emancipation Proclaimation

v. 1888 � Brazilian emancipation

(f) Still have to deal with problems of slavery today.

5 Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars

1. Unstable relations.

2. Assumed war bene�cial.

3. Professional armies and navies; rarely a�ected civilians much. Did notharm domestically.

4. Conclusion of war simply to recover to �ght again.

5. Overseas empires and central Europe overlapped and in�uenced each other.

5.1 The War of Jenkin's Ear

1. Spanish took monopoly seriously, patrolled, and searched English ships.

2. 1731 � Fight during search; Robert Jenkins's ear cut o�. Carried earin brandy.

3. 1738 � Showed ear repeatedly to Parliament demonstrating atrocity.Lobbied to get rid of Spanish intervention.

4. Walpole could not resist pressure; 1739 went to war.

5. Inherently minor, but due to circumstances, opened a series of world-widewars until 1815.


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5.2 The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48)

1. Frederick 2 invaded Habsburg Silesia. Upset pragmatic sanction; hetreated Habsburg as just another state rather than dominant power. Up-set balance of power.

2. Maria Theresa Preserves the Habsburg Empire

(a) Did not retake Silesia but preserved Habsburg power.

(b) Granted privileges to nobility to win support.

i. Recognized Hungary as most important.

ii. Promise Magyar nobility local autonomy.

(c) Preserved state but at cost to central monarchy.

(d) Hungary would continue to be troubled. Weak monarchy → had topromise Hungary concessions.

3. France Draws Great Britain into the War

(a) France united Jenkins Ear and Austrian Succession.

(b) Aggressive nobles pressue Cardinal Fleury (1653-1743) to scrap Britishattack and support Prussia against Austria, traditional French en-emy.

(c) Fateful decision.

i. Aiding Prussia helped new, powerful German state. Could andwould later threaten France.

ii. Brought Britain into continental war; they wanted to make sureNetherlands were Austrian, not French.

(d) 1744 � France supported Spain against Britain in New World.

(e) French military badly divided. Lost colonies to Britain to focus onwar with Austria.

(f) 1748 � Aix-la-Chapelle� war end stalemate. Prussia keep Sile-sia, Spain continued to let Britain sell slaves in Spanish colonies.Peace in Europe.

5.3 The �Diplomatic Revolution� of 1756

1. France and England informally �ght over Ohio River valley. Led toFrench and Indian War (1755).

2. George 2 (r. 1727-1760) thought French might attack Hanover inresponse to American con�ict.

3. Jan 1756 � Convention of Westminster with Prussia; defensive al-liance to prevent foreign troops entering Germany states.


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(a) Geroge 2 feared French.

(b) Frederick 2 feared alliance of Russia and Austria.

4. May 1756 � France and Austria sign defensive alliance.

(a) Unthinkable before.

(b) France agreed because Frederick had not consulted with French min-isters before allying with Britain.

5.4 The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)

1. Frederick the Great Opens Hostilities

(a) Aug. 1756 invaded Saxony. Considered this preemptive against con-spiracy but create the alliance that he feared.

(b) 1757 � France, Austria, Sweden, Russia, smaller German statesally to destroy Prussia.

(c) Leadership (known as Frederick the Great after this war) and twofactors saved Prussia:

i. Britain gave substantial money.

ii. 1762 � Elizabeth of Russia (r 1741-62) died. Successor TsarPeter 3 (killed in same year) admired Frederick and immediatelypeace.

(d) 1763 � Treaty of Hubertusburg ended war with no borderchange. Prussia clearly powerful.

2. William Pitt's (the Elder, 1708-78) Strategy for Winning NorthAmerica

(a) Gave tons of money to Frederick the Great.

(b) German con�ict diverted French from colony. �Won America onplains of Germany.�

(c) Wanted all of America east of Mississippi.

(d) Sent over 40,000 English and colonial troops; highest ever for colo-nial war.

(e) Cooperated with colonies�realized they could defeat French.

(f) French could not direct similar resources.

i. Corrupt administration.

ii. Military and political leadership in Canada divided.

iii. Could not su�ciently supply forces.

iv. 1759 � French were defeated on Plains of Abraham.


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(g) Also captured French West Indies. French trade fell by 80% from1755-60.

(h) Defeated France's India of 1757 Battle of Plassey.

(i) Never had any European power experience such world-wide victory.

3. The Treaty of Paris in 1763

(a) Less victorious than battle�eld.

(b) Pitt no longer in o�ce; replaced by Earl of Bute.

(c) Britain get Canada, Ohio River Valley, eastern half of MississippiRiver valley.

(d) Some Indian colonies returned; Guadeloupe and Martinique returned.


(a) 10,000s soldiers and sailors died in major battles across globe.

(b) Prussia took Silesia and turned Holy Roman Empire empty, at greatsacri�ce.

(c) Habsburg power depedent on Hungary.

(d) France no longer great power.

(e) Spanish Empire intact, but British still wanted its markets.

(f) British East India compay power over decaying states. Organizednew territories in New World. Britain became world power untilWWII.

(g) Domestic Crises

i. France desperate for reform.

ii. Everybody had to increase revenue.

6 The American Revolution and Europe

Evolved from revenue-collection problems common to all powers in Seven-Years'War. French support of colonies worsened French debt.

6.1 Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue

1. Two imperial problems after 1763 Treaty of Paris:

(a) Cost of maintaining empire�could not maintain alone. Colonies paybecause they're bene�ciaries.

(b) New territory to organize�St. Lawrence to Mississippi�get rid ofFrench and Native.


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2. 1764 � Sugar Act � rigorous collection of lower tax. Smugglers triedin Admiralty court w/o jury.

3. 1765 � Stamp Act � legal docs, newspapers, etc.

4. 1765 � Stamp Act Congress � protest; fear if colonial government ex-ternally funded, colonists would lose control.

(a) In�uenced by Sons of Liberty.

(b) Refused to import British goods.

5. 1766 � Repeal stamp act;Declaratory Act still held power to legislatecolonies.

6. Pattern:

(a) Parliament approve legislation.

(b) American resist w/ reasoned argument.

(c) Parliament repeal; start over.

(d) With each clash, less reconcilable. Americans think more liberty.

6.2 The Crisis and Independence

1. 1767 � Charles Townshend � colonial import laws.

2. Sent customs agents and troops to protect.

3. 1770 � Boston Massacre � 5 citizen killed.

4. Repealed except one on tea.

5. 1774 � Lord North pass what known as Intolerable Acts.

(a) Close Boston.

(b) Reorganize Massachusetts.

(c) Allowed quartering.

(d) Remove trials of customs o�cers.

6. Quebec Act � Quebec include Ohio River Valley.

7. 1774 � First Continental Congress � couldn't reconcile. Battles ofLexington, Concord 1775.

8. 1775 � Second Continental Congress� still seek reconciliation, buttoo much tension; began to lead colonies.

(a) George III declare rebellion.

(b) Paine's Common Sense convince public.


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(c) Organize colonial army, navy.

9. Apr. 1776 � Open American ports.

10. 1781 � End American Revolution; Washington defeat Lord Cornwallisat Yorktown.

(a) 1778 � Ben Franklin persuade French to support.

(b) 1779 � Spanish join against Brit.

11. 1783 Treaty of Paris � 13 colonies free.

6.3 American Political Ideals

1. Look to English Revolution of 1688; similar to rebellion against Stuart.

2. Justify aristocratic rebellion to support popular revolution.

3. Whig ideals, derived from Locke.

4. Commonwealthmean � British political writers, intellectually rooted inradical Puritan revolution.

(a) John Trenchard (1662-1723)

(b) Thomas Gordon (d. 1750) � Cato's Letters criticize Walpole �corrupt and undermined liberty.

(c) Parli tax simply �nance corruption.

(d) Standing army part of tyranny.

(e) In Britain, ignored because public thought they were freest people inworld.

(f) Picked up in colonies � accepted en face.

6.4 Events in Great Britain

1. George III believed he should have his own ministers and royal manage-ment of Parli.

(a) Appointed Earl of Bute �rst minister.

(b) Ignore Whigs that ran country since 1715 � sought aid of politiciansParli hated.

(c) Lord North �rst minister from 1770-82.

(d) Whig families claimed George III trying to impose tyranny.

(e) George III try to restore royal in�uence, but not really tyrant.

2. The Challenge of John Wilkes (1763)


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(a) Wilkes criticize Lord North's peace negotiations with France.

(b) Arrested under general warrant; released by privilege of Parli plea.

(c) Courts rule general warrant illegal.

(d) House of Commons rule libel.

(e) Wilkes �ed and outlawed, but enjoyed popular support.

(f) 1768 � Returned, re-elected to Parliament. Commons refused toseat (under in�uence of George's friends). Elected three more times;Parli ignored after 4th.

(g) Popular and aristocratic support.

(h) Finally seated in 1774.

(i) Colonists see as King being arbitrary tyrant.

3. Movement for Parliamentary Reform

(a) British home subjects not directly represented anymore than colonists.

(b) Wilkes and Colonists protest same things � large, self-elected aris-tocratic body; popular support.

(c) Revolution orderly; outside regular framework.

(d) Parliamentary reform towards end of Revolution.

4. Yorkshire Association Movement

(a) End of 1770s: British resent mismanagement of war.

(b) 1778: Christopher Wyvil � property owners (freeholders) � mod-erate changes to corrupt system.

(c) Popular attempt to establish extra-legal institution to reform gov-ernment.

(d) Failed during 1780s because members not willing to appeal to public.

(e) Provided experience. Many younger members promoted reform after1815.

(f) Parliament passed some resolutions, but not much substantial.

5. 1783 � Lord North ally with Charles James Fox, critic of monarch.

(a) 1783 � King appoint William Pitt the Younger to manage House ofCommons

(b) 1784 � Pitt construct King-phallic monarchy.

(c) Tried a reform in 1785; failed and he gave up reforming.

(d) 1780s � Reassert monarchy control. Temporary; mental illness re-quired regency which weakened royal power.

(e) Great cost. Popular sovereignty; colonies lost.

(f) Economically �ne. Trade after independence increase.


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6.5 Broader Impact of the American Revolution

1. Establish title less non-hereditary government based on documents basedon popular consent and sovereignty.

2. 1760-70: Colonists see selves as preserve English liberty against tyranny.

3. 1770s: reject monarchy; form republic.

4. White males equal before law.

5. Genuinely radical movement. Other people began to question traditionalEuropean government.

7 In Perspective

During sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, mercantile empires were establishedto gain wealth for the home country. African slaves were drawn into plantations,infusing culture with African culture. Colonial wars became entangled with con-tinental wars, resulting in world-wide mid-century wars. Britain, France, andSpain fought for dominance in New World; France and Britain also fought forIndia but Britain beat France. Spain held their territory. Britain used con-tinental wars to divert French attention, thus winning colonial wars. Prussiaemerged powerful in 1763, Austria weaker, and France in huge debt. The warsdepleted everybody, so the British tried to tax their colonies to raise funds, lead-ing to revolution. The French aided the colonists, but were already in deep debt;the monarch and nobility soon clashed, bringing the French revolution. Spainbegan administering its empires more e�ciently with the Bourbon monarchs,increasing revolutionary discontent. Prussia, Austria, and Russia pursued ac-tivist government known as Enlightened Absolutism. Mid-18th-century warsbrought most major political developments in the next half century.

A Visitors Describe the Portobello Fair

Portobello is ordinarily sparsely populated (tiempo muerto) but each year duringthe fair, it becomes one of the most populous places. A tent is erected fromthe ship's sales. Mules drag gold and silver to unload; the authors say nobodysteals or loses the bullion. The harbor then �lls with many other vessels todistribute goods elsewhere. The Spanish ships also facilitate trade from thefellow American port of Carthagena. The merchants of Peru, deputies andcommodore of ship announce price.

Cacao, quinquina, Jesuit's bark, Vicuña wool, bezoar stones are sold. Thesystem is ine�cient because such a large amount of goods are sold centrally andtrade between American ports can only take place through Spanish ships, oncea year. Chatas and bongos, vessels that carry the goods away from the portto colonial settlement, can easily be used for smuggling since the Spanish shipssoon leave, leaving no guard.


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B Buccaneers Prowl the High Seas

A �ne line existed between self-serving buccaneers and privateers operatingfor European governments. There is a careful code of conduct among piratesthemselves but they treated others harshly. Poor farmers and �shermen wererobbed and virtually enslaved.

Sometimes pirates plunder Spanish corrales�places where about thousandhogs were kept. Demand hobs from farmer; threaten to hang. When a shipis captured, captain decides to keep it if it is better. The old ship is burned.Stu� robbed from ships must be split equally. Each pirate must swear oath onBible; if they breach, they are banished. Prisoners are to be set on shore ASAP,except a few for slaves for 2-3 years. Often land on islands and set maraudingexpeditions. Catch poor �shermen for slaves for their families for 4-5 years.

C A Slave Trader Describes the Atlantic Passage

Left with 480 men, 220 women; had to promise to return next year with Englishgoods. Great disease; 320 died, so they lost a lot of money. Blacks survivedsmallpox but did not survived �white �ux.� Sick people got as much water asthey wanted and some oil to annoint wounds. They claim to have taken greatcare to feed and house the slaves, yet consider their conditions when they walkthrough �a parcel of creatures nastier than swine, and after all our expectationsto be defeated by their mortality . . . � Carrying slaves is �lthy, di�cult task;when they die, life really sucks for you.

Average 78� × 16�. Shackles prevented suicide. 609 slaves could be carriedon ship designed for 450.

D Major Cathwright Calls for the Reform of Par-


1777 � more citizens be allowed to vote. Parliament fundamentally corrupt;must go to bottom. Annual elections and common representation, not via royalfavor. 5,723 elect 254 out of 513 representatives, derived from royal favor.Flagrant injustice, strip citizen's right to vote.