# Ch. 5: Using Newtonâ€™s Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces

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Ch. 5: Using Newton’s Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces. Sect. 5-1: Friction. Friction Always present when 2 solid surfaces slide along each other. We must account for it to be realistic! Exists between any 2 sliding surfaces. Two types of friction: Static (no motion) Friction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

### Text of Ch. 5: Using Newtonâ€™s Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces

• Ch. 5: Using Newtons Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces

• Sect. 5-1: FrictionFrictionAlways present when 2 solid surfaces slide along each other.We must account for it to be realistic!Exists between any 2 sliding surfaces.Two types of friction:Static (no motion) FrictionKinetic (motion) FrictionThe size of the friction force depends on the microscopic details of 2 sliding surfaces. These details arent yet fully understood. It depends on:The materials they are made ofAre the surfaces smooth or rough? Are they wet or dry?Etc., etc., etc.

• Kinetic Friction is the same as sliding friction. Experiments determine the relation used to calculate the friction force.The Kinetic Friction force Ffr is proportional to the magnitude of the normal force FN between 2 sliding surfaces.The DIRECTIONS of Ffr & FN are each other!! Ffr FN We write the relation between their magnitudes asFfr kFN (magnitudes) k Coefficient of kinetic friction k depends on the surfaces & their conditions. It is dimensionless & < 1 It is different for each pair of sliding surfaces.

• Static Friction: A friction force Ffr exists between 2 || surfaces, even if there is no motion. This applies when the 2 surfaces are at rest with respect to each other. The static friction force is as big as it needs to be to prevent slipping, up to a maximum value. Usually it is easier to keep an object sliding than it is to get it started. Consider an applied force FA: F = ma = 0 & also v = 0 There must be a friction force Ffr to oppose FA

Newtons 2nd Law in the horizontal direction gives:FA Ffr = 0 or Ffr = FA

• Experiments find that the maximum static friction force Ffr (max) is proportional to the magnitude (size) of the normal force FN between the 2 surfaces.The DIRECTIONS of Ffr & FN are each other!! Ffr FN Write the relation between their magnitudes asFfr (max) = sFN (magnitudes)s Coefficient of static frictions depends on the surfaces & their conditions. It is dimensionless & < 1 It is different for each pairof sliding surfaces. For the static friction force:Ffr sFN

• Coefficients of Frictions > k Ffr (max, static) > Ffr (kinetic)

• Static & Kinetic Friction

• Example 5-1: Friction; Static & KineticA box, mass m = 10.0-kg rests on a horizontal floor. The coefficient of static friction is s = 0.4; the coefficient of kinetic friction is k = 0.3. Calculate the friction force on the box for a horizontal external applied force of magnitude: (a) 0, (b) 10 N, (c) 20 N, (d) 38 N, (e) 40 N.

• Conceptual Example 5-2You can hold a box against a rough wall & prevent it from slipping down by pressing hard horizontally. How does the application of a horizontal force keep an object from moving vertically?

• Example 5-3: Pulling Against FrictionA box, mass m = 10 kg, is pulled along a horizontal surface by a force of FP = 40.0 N applied at a 30.0 angle above horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction is k = 0.3. Calculate the acceleration.

• Conceptual Example 5-4: To Push or to Pull a Sled?Vertical Forces:Fy = 0 FN mg Fy = 0 FN = mg + Fy Ffr (max) = sFNHorizontal Forces: Fx = ma Vertical Forces:Fy = 0FN - mg + Fy = 0 FN = mg - Fy Ffr (max) = sFNHorizontal Forces: Fx = maPushing Pulling Your little sister wants a ride on her sled. If you are on flat ground, will you exert less force if you push her or pull her? Assume the same angle in each case.F = ma

• Example 5-5: Two boxes and a pulleyF = maFor EACH mass separately!x & y components plus Ffr = kFN2 boxes are connected by a cord running over a pulley. The coefficient of kinetic friction between box A & the table is 0.2. Ignore the mass of the cord & pulley & friction in the pulley, which means a force applied to one end of the cord has the same magnitude at the other end. Find the acceleration, a, of the system, which has the same magnitude for both boxes if the cord doesnt stretch. As box B moves down, box A moves to the right.aa

• Recall the Inclined Plane

Understand F = ma & how to resolve into x,y components in the tilted coordinate system!! aTilted coordinatesystem: Convenient, but not necessary.

• Example 5-6: The skierThis skier is descending a 30 slope, at constant speed. What can you say about the coefficient of kinetic friction?

• Example 5-7: A ramp, a pulley, & two boxesBox A, mass mA = 10 kg, rests on a surface inclined at = 37 to the horizontal. Its connected by a light cord, passing over a massless, frictionless pulley, to Box B, which hangs freely. (a) If the coefficient of static friction is s = 0.4, find the range of values for mass B which will keep the system at rest. (b) If the coefficient of kinetic friction is k = 0.3, and mB = 10 kg, find the acceleration of the system.

• Example 5-7: Continued(a) Coefficient of static friction s = 0.4, find the range of values for mass B which will keep the system at rest. Static Case (i): Small mB mA: mA slides up the incline, so friction acts down the incline.

Static Case (i): mB mAmA slides up incline Ffr acts down incline

• Example 5-7: Continued(b) If the coefficient of kinetic friction is k = 0.3, and mB = 10 kg, find the acceleration of the system & the tension in the cord.

Motion: mB = 10 kgmA slides up incline Ffr acts down incline

Chapter Opener. Caption: Newtons laws are fundamental in physics. These photos show two situations of using Newtons laws which involve some new elements in addition to those discussed in the previous Chapter. The downhill skier illustrates friction on an incline, although at this moment she is not touching the snow, and so is retarded only by air resistance which is a velocity-dependent force (an optional topic in this Chapter). The people on the rotating amusement park ride below illustrate the dynamics of circular motion.

Figure 5-4.Answer: Friction, of course! The normal force points out from the wall, and the frictional force points up.Figure 5-5.Solution: Lack of vertical motion gives us the normal force (remembering to include the y component of FP), which is 78 N. The frictional force is 23.4 N, and the horizontal component of FP is 34.6 N, so the acceleration is 1.1 m/s2.Figure 5-6.Answer: Pulling decreases the normal force, while pushing increases it. Better pull.Figure 5-8. Caption: Example 56. A skier descending a slope; FG = mg is the force of gravity (weight) on the skier.Solution: Since the speed is constant, there is no net force in any direction. This allows us to find the normal force and then the frictional force; the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.58.Figure 5-9. Caption: Example 57. Note choice of x and y axes.Solution: Pick axes along and perpendicular to the slope. Box A has no movement perpendicular to the slope; box B has no horizontal movement. The accelerations of both boxes, and the tension in the cord, are the same. Solve the resulting two equations for these two unknowns.The mass of B has to be between 2.8 and 9.2 kg (so A doesnt slide either up or down). 0.78 m/s2

Figure 5-9. Caption: Example 57. Note choice of x and y axes.Solution: Pick axes along and perpendicular to the slope. Box A has no movement perpendicular to the slope; box B has no horizontal movement. The accelerations of both boxes, and the tension in the cord, are the same. Solve the resulting two equations for these two unknowns.The mass of B has to be between 2.8 and 9.2 kg (so A doesnt slide either up or down). 0.78 m/s2

Figure 5-9. Caption: Example 57. Note choice of x and y axes.Solution: Pick axes along and perpendicular to the slope. Box A has no movement perpendicular to the slope; box B has no horizontal movement. The accelerations of both boxes, and the tension in the cord, are the same. Solve the resulting two equations for these two unknowns.The mass of B has to be between 2.8 and 9.2 kg (so A doesnt slide either up or down). 0.78 m/s2

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