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Ch 4 sect 4 civil war turning points

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  • 1. Civil War Turning Points
  • 2. Objectives Explain what the Union gained by capturing Vicksburg. Describe the importance of the Battle of Gettysburg. Analyze how the Union pressed its military advantage after 1863.
  • 3. Terms and People siege military tactic in which an enemy is surrounded and all supplies are cut off in an attempt to force a surrender Vicksburg Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River that surrendered to Union forces in 1863 after a siege Battle of Gettysburg battle in 1863 in which Confederate troops were prevented from invading the North; resulted in 50,000 casualties George Pickett leader of the Souths bloody assault on the Union-held Cemetery Ridge at Gettysburg
  • 4. Terms and People (continued) Gettysburg Address speech by President Lincoln in which he dedicated a national cemetery at Gettysburg and reaffirmed the ideas for which the Union was fighting total war military strategy in which an army attacks not only enemy troops but the economic and civilian resources that support them William Tecumseh Sherman Union general, practiced total war as he marched through and conquered Georgia
  • 5. How did the Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg change the course of the Civil War? After having only limited success, the North won some significant battles in 1863. Though the fighting continued, the year 1863 marked the beginning of the end for the Confederacy.
  • 6. In the Mississippi Valley To win the war, the Union had to gain control of Vicksburg on the Mississippi River. This was key to the Norths Anaconda Plan to gain control of the river and to cut the South in half.
  • 7. Union General U.S. Grants strategy to take Vicksburg He captured the Mississippi state capital at Jackson. He gained control of the main rail line into Vicksburg and cut off all supplies. He placed Vicksburg under siege.
  • 8. After learning that Vicksburg had fallen on July 4, 1863, the last Southern stronghold on the Mississippi, a garrison at Port Hudson, Louisiana, surrendered in days. The Union had split the South in two.
  • 9. In the East Taking high casualties, the Union lost battles against Confederate General Lee at Fredericksburg (December 1862) and at Chancellorsville, Virginia (May 1863). After the Union army failed in its attempts to defeat Lee, Lincoln appointed various commanders-in-chief. Lee made the decision to once again invade the northern territory to demoralize the Union and force an end to the war.
  • 10. Lees army met Union troops at Gettysburg. The Union saw the significance of Lees invasion of northern territory. The Union sent 90,000 soldiers to fight Lees army of 77,500 soldiers.
  • 11. Battle of Gettysburg Lasted three days Considered the bloodiest battle ever fought on U.S. soil Caused more than 50,000 southern and northern men to be killed or wounded Turning point of Civil War
  • 12. Lee won the battle on the first day, but by the third day the Union was better positioned. The Union (blue) was located on high ground south of the town. Confederate (red) General George Pickett heroically led his men to roust the Union. They failed. Lee and his army retreated back to Virginia.
  • 13. To honor all the fallen soldiers, President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address four months after the battle. [W]e here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Abraham Lincoln, November 19, 1863
  • 14. In early 1864, Lincoln put Grant in charge of the entire Union military effort. Once in command of the Union forces, Grant followed a strategy of total war and pursued Lee relentlessly all the way to Richmond.
  • 15. On his march to the sea through Georgia, in May 1864, Union General William Tecumseh Sherman also practiced the strategy of total war. Sherman and his men tore up railroad tracks, destroyed buildings, and vandalized private homes. They forced people out of the city of Atlanta and then burned it. Southerners called the general Sherman the Brute.
  • 16. The presidential election of 1864 pitted Republican Abraham Lincoln against Democrat George McClellan. Lincoln McClellan Criticized by some for seizing too much authority Was former Union commander Won 212 of the 233 electoral votes Received 45 percent of the popular vote With Lincoln reelected, the South lost all hopes the Union would negotiate a peace.