Enlightenment and Revolution: The Scientific Revolution Ch. 22.1

Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

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Page 1: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

Enlightenment and Revolution:The Scientific Revolution

Ch. 22.1

Page 2: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

The Roots of Modern Science

Renaissance inspired curiosity This led to the Reformation The Reformation and the challenge to

authority, helped start the Scientific Revolution.

Page 3: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

Science: The Medieval View Remember the Earth-

at-the-center-of-the-Universe theory?

Aristotle, the greatest scientist until the 1500’s, had supported this idea.

After all, it seemed logical. The Sun moves and we don’t.

Page 4: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

A New Way of Thinking Scientific Revolution: Beginning in the mid 1500’s,

new scientific ideas would be based upon careful observation. A willingness to question accepted beliefs

Newfound manuscripts launched new ideas European exploration fueled scientific research.

Used stars to guide ships Needed better instruments and geographic

measurements. When they started looking around, they found their

observations did not match the ancient beliefs.

Page 5: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Geo=Earth Helio= Sun Centric=Center Nicolaus Copernicus first started the concept. However, his theory could not perfectly explain why

the planets behaved the way they did. Johannes Kepler’s mathematic laws showed the

planets moved in elliptical patterns, not circular, like proposed by Copernicus.

Page 6: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

Aristotle vs. Galileo Aristotle

Believed a pendulum slowed down as it approached its resting place

Believed heavier objects fell faster than smaller ones

Earth was center of universe

Galileo Showed a pendulum

does not slow down. Called the Law of the Pendulum

Showed that all objects fall at the same speed.

With a homemade telescope, monitored the movement of the stars to show the Sun was the center of the universe

Page 7: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

Conflict with the Church Galileo was urged by the church not to pursue his

ideas about the universe He did anyway, in a book called Dialogue Concerning

the Two Chief World Systems Was threatened by the Church and forced to deny is

ideas he knew to be true Sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life. Later, the Church issued an apology to Galileo, saying

they were wrong to suppress his scientific findings.

IN 1992!!!!!

Page 8: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

The Scientific Method

Find a problem Form a hypothesis (prediction) about

that problem Observe the problem through

experimentation or data collection See if observation proves or disproves

the hypothesis Repeat process many times

Page 9: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

Observation vs. Assumption

What we see or believe isn’t always what is going on. “I’d help someone who was in trouble” “Eyewitness accounts are reliable” “I’d never hurt another human just

because someone told me to”

Page 10: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

Some Revolutionaries Francis Bacon

English politician and writer Believed science could improve people’s lives Criticized peoples acceptance of Aristotle’s ideas

Rene Descartes Rejected old assumptions and teachings Accept only things learned through

observation Knew only one thing for certain: “I think,

therefore I am.” Moved on from there.

Page 11: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

Isaac Newton Brought together the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and

Galileo under one unifying theory. The Theory of Motion

All things are affected by a force, gravity That force ruled the planets, pendulum, and all

matter on Earth and Space Every object attracts every other object. The degree

of attraction depends on the mass of that object and the distance between the objects.

His book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, described the universe as a giant clock. All its parts worked together perfectly in ways that

could be described by mathematics. Believed God was the creator of this orderly universe,

the clockmaker who had set everything in motion

Page 12: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

The Revolution Spreads Zacharias Jannsen:

1st microscope Anton van Leeuwenhoek:

Observed bacteria under a microscope Proved tiny organisms did not just spontaneously

appear, as previously thought Evangelista Torricelli

1st mercury barometer Gabriel Fahrenheit and Anders Celsius

The mercury thermometer, and their respective measurements

Page 13: Ch 22.1 the scientific revolution

Andreas Vesalius Dissected cadavers to get a better

understanding of the inner human body. William Harvey

The Heart and Blood Vessels Edward Jenner

Vaccine for smallpox using cowpox vs. smallpox Robert Boyle

The founder of modern chemistry