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    The Governance of Nature

    and the Nature of Governance:Policy that works for biodiversity and livelihoods

    Krystyna Swiderska

    with

    Dilys Roe

    Linda Siegele

    Maryanne Grieg-Gran

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    i

    The Governance o Nature and the Nature o Governance:Policy that works or biodiversity and livelihoods

    Krystyna Swiderska, with Dilys Roe, Linda Siegele, Maryanne Grieg-Gran

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    ii

    Acknowledgeents

    The authors are grateul to SwedBio (the Swedish International Biodiversity Program unded by Sida) and theUNDP/Equator Initiative or their nancial support. A big thank-you to Sonja Vermeulen (IIED) and Maria Berlekom(SwedBio) or their useul comments on the drat. A special thanks also to our country partners who helpedorganise, conduct and write up the country case studies, in particular:

    Tanzania: Faustin Maganga (Institute o Resource Assessment, IRA), Tom Blomley and David Howlett

    India: Neema Pathak, Madhu Sarin, Tejaswini Apte, Kanchi Kohli, Ashish Kothari and Seema Bhatt

    Peru: Micha Torres, Alejandro Argumedo and Inti Montenegro (ANDES) and Maria Luisa del Rio (CONAM)

    Thanks also to Michel Pimbert (IIED) or his guidance, Joy Hyvarinen (FIELD) or comments on the drat, and toJames Mayers and Steve Bass or their advice in the early stages. Finally, we would also like to thank Fiona Hall orediting the drat, Richard Scarborough and Piers Aitman or design and layout, Catherine Baker and AlessandraGiuliani or their help with compiling reerences, and Vanessa Mcleod-Kourie and Khanh Tran-Thanh or helpingcoordinate the production process.

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    Acronys and abbreviations

    ABS Access and benet sharing

    BMC Biodiversity Management Committees (India)

    CBD Convention on Biological Diversity

    CBNRM Community-based natural resource management

    CBO Community-based organisation

    CCA Community conserved areas

    CGIAR Consultative Group on International AgriculturalResearch

    CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered

    Species o Fauna and FloraCONAM The National Commission or Environment (Peru)

    COP Conerence o Parties (to the CBD)

    CTE World Trade Organisations Committee on Tradeand Environment

    CWM Community wildlie management

    DBS Direct budget support

    DDS Deccan Development Society

    DFID UK Department or International Development

    EIA Environmental impact assessment

    FDI Foreign direct investment

    FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation o the United

    NationsFRA The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest

    Dwellers (Recognition o Forest Rights) Act, 2006(India)

    FTA Free trade agreement

    GEF Global Environment Facility

    GMO Genetically modied organism

    HYVs High yielding varieties

    IGC Inter-Governmental Committee on GeneticResources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore

    IGO Inter-governmental organisation

    IIFB International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity

    ILO International Labour OrganisationIMF International Monetary Fund

    INRENA The National Institute or Natural Resources (Peru)

    IPRs Intellectual property rights

    IUCN International Union or Conservation o Nature

    JFM Joint orest management

    MA Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    MDG Millennium Development Goals

    MEA Multilateral environmental agreements

    MKUKUTA National Strategy or Growth and Reduction oPoverty (Tanzania)

    NBA National Biodiversity Authority (India)

    NBSAP National biodiversity strategy and action plan

    Norad Norwegian Agency or Development Cooperation

    NR Natural resources

    NTFP Non-timber orest product

    OECD Organisation or Economic Co-operation andDevelopment

    PA Protected area

    PBR Peoples biodiversity register

    PDS Public Distribution System (India)PESA Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act,

    1996(India)

    PFM Participatory orest management

    PIC Prior inormed consent

    PoWPA Programme o Work on Protected Areas (CBD)

    PRSP Poverty reduction strategy paper

    PTPA US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    RH Resident hunting (Tanzania)

    SBB State Biodiversity Boards (India)

    SEZ Special economic zone (India)

    SPS Sanitary and phytosanitary measures

    TANAPA Tanzania National Parks Authority

    TK Traditional knowledge

    TRIPS Trade-related aspects o intellectual propertyrights

    UNDP United Nations Development Programme

    UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

    UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

    UNPFII UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

    UPOV International Union or the Protection o NewVarieties o Plants Convention

    USD United States dollars

    WIPO World Intellectual Property OrganisationWLPA Wildlie Protection Act (India)

    WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development

    WTO World Trade Organisation

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    Contents

    Acknowledgements iiAcronyms and abbreviations iii

    Eecutive Suary vii

    Capter 1. Introduction 1

    1.1. Governance, biodiversity and livelihoods 11.2. Objectives and ocus 1

    PART 1: BIODIVERSITY GOVERNANCE ISSUES: A GLOBAL REVIEW 5

    Capter 2. Biodiversity 72.1. Key terms 72.2. Biodiversity loss 92.3. The many values o biodiversity 112.4. Integrating local values into biodiversity assessments 15

    Capter 3. Good governance 18

    3.1. What is governance and why is it ailing biodiversity and livelihoods? 183.2. What kind o governance do we need? 213.3. Promoting good governance in biodiversity conservation 25

    Capter 4. Governance at te local level: counity-based conservation 32

    4.1. Has community-based conservation worked? 334.2. Institutional constraints to community-based conservation 34

    4.4. Strengthening local institutions, rights and participation 364.5. Scaling-up community conservation 38

    Capter 5. Governance at te national level: ainstreaing biodiversity 41

    5.1. Mainstreaming biodiversity and economic valuation 415.2. Improving the planning process or national biodiversity strategies and action plans 45

    Capter 6. Governance at te international level 48

    6.1. The Convention on Biological Diversity 486.2. Gaps in the biodiversity discourse: sustainable use and human rights 526.3. Access to and benets rom genetic resources 566.4. Coherence between the biodiversity and trade agendas 58

    PART 2: COUNTRY CASE STUDIES 63Introduction 64

    Capter 7. India 65

    7.1. Wildlie conservation policy 657.2. Biodiversity legislation in India 677.3. Wildlie versus people lobbies 687.4. National biodiversity strategy and action plan 707.5. Towards rights or pastoralists, tribal peoples and orest communities 727.6. Mainstreaming biodiversity in development policy and planning 757.7. Integrating biodiversity into agriculture and rural development policy 817.8. Integrating biodiversity into state and district planning 847.9. The role o donors 847.10. Getting biodiversity onto the political agenda 85

    7.11. Policymaking and implementation processes 857.12. Strategies or infuencing policy 877.13. Suggestions or action-research 88

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    Capter 8. Tanzania 90

    8.1. Wildlie conservation and national parks 908.2. Restrictions on wildlie hunting 928.3. Community wildlie management and WMAs 928.4. Participatory orest management and its impacts 938.5. Mainstreaming the environment: the MKUKUTA 1008.6. Tanzanias NBSAP and mainstreaming biodiversity 1048.7. Infuencing policymaking and implementation processes 1058.8. Suggestions or action-research 108

    Capter 9. Peru 111

    9.1. Protected area co-management 111

    9.2. Mainstreaming biodiversity in development policies 1129.3. Policymaking and implementation processes 1249.4. Conclusions and recommendations 1259.5. Suggestions or uture action-research 125

    PART 3: CONCLUSIONS AND WAYS FORWARD 127

    Capter 10. Conclusions 128

    10.1. Improving policymaking processes 12910.2. Recognising and enorcing local rights 13110.3. Strengthening governance at the local level 13310.4. Improving policy coherence and mainstreaming biodiversity across all sectors 135

    Capter 11. Ways orward 137

    11.1. Community empowerment approaches 13711.2. Approaches or improving policies and institutions 14011.3. Going urther 143

    Anne: List o People Interviewed 144

    REFERENCES 146

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    ExECUTIVE SUmmARYBiodiversity and ecosystem services are being degraded aster than at any other time in human history. Most othe worlds biodiversity is ound in Southern countries where people greatly depend on natural resources butsuer rom high levels o rural poverty and oten weak governance. Weak governance (eg. political marginalisationand corruption) is a key underlying driver o both biodiversity loss and poverty. At the same time, the role obiodiversity in the provision o ecosystem services that underpin national economies and rural livelihoods is largelyoverlooked. As the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment ound, reversing ecosystem degradation while meeting thegrowing demand or ecosystem services will require signicant changes in policies, institutions, and practices.

    The 190 Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) ar

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