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CEREAL RYE - GRDC · PDF file viii ˜˚˛˝˙ˆˇ˘ January 2018 Contents Contents cereal rye 3.1 Seed treatments ..... 1

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  • SOUTHERN SEPTEMBER 2018

    CONTENTS

    CEREAL RYE

  • v

    SOUTHERN January 2018

    Contents

    Contents cereal rye

    Introduction A.1 Crop overview ..........................................................................................................xxii

    A.1.1 Comparative notes ................................................................................................ xxii

    A.1.2 Description ............................................................................................................... xxii

    A.1.3 Rye for human consumption .............................................................................. xxiv

    A.1.4 Rye for animal consumption ............................................................................... xxiv Grain ..................................................................................................................................................xxiv

    Forage ................................................................................................................................................xxv

    Pasture ...............................................................................................................................................xxv

    A.2 Growing regions ......................................................................................................xxv

    A.3 Brief history ............................................................................................................xxvii

    1 Planning/Paddock preparation Key messages: .....................................................................................................................................1

    1.1 Paddock selection ....................................................................................................... 1

    1.1.1 Topography ................................................................................................................... 1 Topography mediates the influence of cover crops on soil nitrate levels .....................2

    1.1.2 Soil .................................................................................................................................3 Rye on erosion-prone soils .............................................................................................................4

    Soil pH ....................................................................................................................................................5

    Managing soil pH ...............................................................................................................................6

    1.1.3 Sampling soil quality .................................................................................................6 Sampling strategy ..............................................................................................................................7

    Sampling equipment .........................................................................................................................8

    Sampling depth ...................................................................................................................................8

    Sample handling.................................................................................................................................8

    1.1.4 Biological inputs .........................................................................................................9 Yield constraints in the Southern Region ...................................................................................9

    1.2 Paddock rotation and history ................................................................................... 9 Allelopathic effects ........................................................................................................................... 11

    1.2.1 Rotation issues ........................................................................................................... 11

    1.2.2 Break cropping ......................................................................................................... 12

    1.2.3 Long-fallow disorder ................................................................................................13

    1.3 Fallow weed control ..................................................................................................14 Summer fallow weed control and residue management impacts on winter crop yield through soil water and N accumulation in a winter- dominant low rainfall region of southern Australia. .............................................................. 15

    1.3.1 The green bridge ..................................................................................................... 16

    1.3.2 Management strategies ..........................................................................................17

    1.3.3 Benefits of stubble retention .................................................................................17 Reducing erosion risk ..................................................................................................................... 18

    Increasing soil-water content ....................................................................................................... 18

    Contents

  • vi

    SOUTHERN January 2018

    Contents

    Contents cereal rye

    Increasing soil carbon .................................................................................................................... 18

    Other benefits of stubble retention ............................................................................................ 19

    Management practices affecting stubble cover .................................................................... 19

    1.4 Fallow chemical plant-back effects ........................................................................19 Conditions required for breakdown ........................................................................................... 21

    Plant-back periods for fallow herbicides in the Southern Region ................................... 21

    1.4.1 Herbicide residues in soil—an Australia-wide study ...................................... 22

    1.5 Seedbed requirements ............................................................................................24

    1.5.1 Seedbed soil structure decline ........................................................................... 25 Background .......................................................................................................................................25

    Management to improve seedbed soil structure .................................................................26

    1.6 Soil moisture..............................................................................................................26

    1.6.1 Dryland ....................................................................................................................... 26 Soil-water extraction by dryland crops, annual pastures and lucerne in south-eastern Australia ............................................................................................................ 27

    Monitoring soil moisture in dryland areas ............................................................................... 27

    1.6.2 Tillage ......................................................................................................................... 28 Tillage, microbial biomass and soil biological fertility ........................................................30

    1.6.3 Irrigation ..................................................................................................................... 32 Dry matter accumulation and changes in forage quality during primary growth and three regrowths of irrigated winter cereals .................................... 33

    The future of irrigation ................................................................................................................... 34

    1.7 Yield and targets ......................................................................................................34 Estimating crop yields .................................................................................................................... 35

    Yield Prophet® .................................................................................................................................. 36

    1.7.1 Seasonal outlook .................................................................................................... 36 CliMate ................................................................................................................................................ 37

    Climate analogues .......................................................................................................................... 37

    1.7.2 Fallow moisture ....................................................................................................... 38 HowWet? ............................................................................................................................................ 38

    1.7.3 Water Use Efficiency .............................................................................................. 38 Strategies to increase yield ......................................................................................................... 39

    The French–Schultz approach ..................................................................................................