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Outcome Based Education(Talk 2 : Delivery)
YAHYA BIN SAMIANyahyasamian@utm.my
Deputy Director IICentre of Teaching & Learning
FKA, UTM - 06th. May 2013
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Expected OutcomesAt the end of this talk, you should be able to.
1. Identify the appropriate T&L methods that are able todevelop the intended learning outcomes (CLO & PO)of the students.
2. Map the T&L methods to the Intended LearningOutcomes.
3. Plan and Deliver the T&L Strategy using AL & CLtechnique.
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OBE Constructive Alignment
goals & objectives
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3 Stages of Backward Design
Are the desired results, assessments, and learningactivities ALIGNED?
Identify the Desired Results
Determine Acceptable Evidence
Plan Learning Experiences
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KNOWLEDGE GENERIC SKILLS
DECIDE ON TAXONOMY & LEVEL
ASSESSMENT TOOLST & L METHODS
SELECT GS ELEMENTS
OBE - The Approach
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NO PROCESS EXAMPLE 1 (Ship Stability - Naval Architecture)
1 SET PO PO 1 (Acquire Knowledge) and PO 4 (Communication Skills)
2 DEVELOP CLO Able to Describe in writing and orally the concept of ship stabilitycorrectly and appropriate to the audience
3 KNOWLEDGE (TechnicalContent) Concept of Ship Stability
4 GENERIC SKILLS Writing and Presentation Skills (CS1 & CS3)
5 TAXONOMY LEVELKnowledge - Blooms Taxonomy Level 2 (C2 : Understanding).Communication Skills - Psychomotor Level 4 (P4 : Mechanism - Able toperform basic skills). No Affective Domain addressed.
6 ASSESSMENT METHODS Test, Class Presentation, Short Assignment
7 T & L METHODS(1) Lecture - To explain the concept. (2) AL / Informal CL - Note taking,class discussion, short presentation in class (Most of AL methods can beapplied)
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NO PROCESS EXAMPLE 2 (Ship Stability - Naval Architecture)
1 SET PO PO 3 (Critical Thinking Skills), PO 4 (Communication Skills), PO 9 (Team Working)
2 DEVELOP CLO Able to clearly identify the stability problem being addressed, select appropriatetheory to addressed the problem and propose solution
3 KNOWLEDGE (TechicalContent) Ship Stability (Damaged Stability)
4 GENERIC SKILLS Critical Thinking (CTPS1, CTPS 2 & CTPS 3), Team Working (TS1), Communication Skills(CS1 & CS3)
5 TAXONOMY LEVEL
Knowledge - Blooms Taxonomy Level 5- 6 (C5 : Evaluating C6 : Creating). GS - Teamworking - Affective Domain Level 4 (A4 - Value : Attached value to TW). GS -Communication Skills - Psychomotor Level 4 (P4 : Mechanism - Able to perform basicskills).
6 ASSESSMENT METHODS Group Assignment, Presentation or Group Interview, Report Writing
7 T & L METHODS (1) Lecture/Briefing - To discuss the task and expectation. (2) Formal CL - Assign group,Task division, group meeting, accountability etc
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In doing so, the students will not only enhancing theirlearning ability, but also developing some of thedesired generic skills.
OBE is about Student Centered Student should takecharge of his/her own learning
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OBE -T & LMETHODS
PROBLEM BASED / LABWORK, / PROJECT
FIELD STUDY / LI / VISITS
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Problem Based Learning / Case Study / Modular /
Inquiry-based learning / Discovery learning /
Case-based learning / Project-based learning /
Problem-oriented project-based learning /
Cooperative learning /Brainstorming / Field-based
learning / Constructivist learning / Web-based
learning /Computer-based learning / Experiential
learning / Peer Instruction / Scenario Based..
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Planning T&L Strategy
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Topic Activities Outcomes
Team-work Team-building games,simulated role-play onfacilitation
Study skills Jigsaw (CL) Reading, self-dir learning, p-teaching, team-working, comm.
Basic calc. Team games tournament(CL)
Reading, p-teaching, team-working, comm., thinking skills
Ethics Guided PBL, main ref.given, in-class act.
Reading, comm., team-working,critical thinking
In and out of classactivities, Seminars &Plant trips
Reading, comm., info-mining,team, crit. and creative thinking
Planning Topic Based
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Planning Week Based
Week # +duration
ActivityLearner Activity Outcomes Assess
1(1hr + 2hr)
1. ILS2. Goal
Informal CL /lecture
Pair discussion Det & explILS & goal
Reflection &goal assign.
4 (1 hr + 2hr)
Study skills 1)Explain jigsaw,create expertgps2)Expert gp peerteaching
1)Find articles forassigned skill2) Discuss in expertgps, make peerteaching notes
Info mining,tech reading,oral comm.,self learning
5 (1 hr + 2hr)
Study skills 1)Facilitation2)Rubric for
1)Home gp peerteaching & discussss CD2)Expertpresentation &submit CD (homegp)
PresentationAnd SS CD
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PLO 1PLO 2PLO 3PLO 4PLO 5PLO 6PLO 7PLO 8 Ethics and IntegrityPLO 9PLO 10
CLO 6 10%
CLO STATEMENT : Able to identify and discusspotential conflict of interest between financial,environment and social needs within thecontext of the course / subject learned
EM 1 /ET 3
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Example of Planning & DesigningCO STATEMENT : Able to identify and discusspotential conflict of interest between financial,environment and social needs within thecontext of the course / subject learned
EM 1 /ET 3
T&L ACTIVITIES :Assignment given to students, working in group of 3-4 members.Reading and Searching for information on related issues & cases fromvarious sources (Internet, New papers etc). Brainstorming andDiscussion Session within the group. Preparing Presentation Slide.Rehearsal Session within the group.
SCHEDULE :Week 3 : Briefing on the outcomes andassignment. Week 4 : Initial Brainstormingwithin the group. Week 5 - 8 : Searching forinformation. Week 9 -11 : Further Discussion.Week 12 : Preparing Slides and RehearsalSession
ASSESSMENT :Based on group Presentation and Q&A Session in Class. Assessed byLecturer and Students of other groups. Mark will also be given to thegroup that asked the questions during the Q&A Session. Assessmentdone using rubric based on appropriate criteria.
SCHEDULE :Week 6 - 11 : Monitoring progress, formativeassessment. Week 13-14 : Presentation andQ&A Session by all groups
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- T&L must be aligned, Planned and delivered
according to the intended learning outcomes
- OBE requires SCL approaches in order high
level thinking and generic skills to be developed
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AL & CL
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WHAT IS ACTIVE LEARNING ?
Is a deliberate, conscious and well planned activities inclass that enable the students to actively participate in theLEARNING PROCESS . In doing so, the students will notonly enhancing their learning ability, but also developingsome of the desired generic skills.
OBE is about Student Centered Student should takecharge of his/her own learning
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Active Learning & Cooperative Learning
InformalAd-hoc groupsperformstructuredactive learningactivities
FormalFormallyassigned long-term groups may performlonger structuredactivities
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WHY AL ?
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WHY AL ?
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WHY AL ?
0 50t (min)
t =time in lecture when informationwas presented
Give activeexercises orbreaks
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Used to focus: Students attention on the material to be
learned, set a mood conducive to learning, help organize in advance the material to be
covered in a class session, ensure that students cognitively process the
material being taught, and provide closure to an instructional session.
WHY AL ?
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May be used at any time, but especially useful duringa lecture or direct teaching before the students' eyesbegin to glaze over.
Slightly less lecture time, but enhance learning andbuild relationships among students in class.
Help counter what is proclaimed as the main problemof lectures:
"The information passes from the notes of the professor to the notes of thestudent without passing through the mind of either one."
WHEN TO USE AL ?
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Planning instruction in classes
The Book-ends Division Approach
HOW TO IMPLEMENT AL ?
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Book-ends division of a class session
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1. Advanced Organizer : Introductory focused discussions
2. Intermittent discussion : Formulate-Share-Listen-Create(Turn-to-your-neighbor) -- repeated every 10 15 min.
3. Closure focused discussions
Division of activities in a typical class session
Three Stages of AL
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The most important single factorinfluencing learning is what the learneralready knows. Ascertain this and teach himaccordingly
David AusubelEducational psychology: A cognitive approach, 1968.
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Ensures all students are actively involved inlearning the material being presented choose theactivity that would develop students at the desiredcognitive level
Facilitates the understanding and retention ofmaterial being learned
Provides students with the opportunity to receivefrom classmates frequent and immediate feedback
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Closure Focused Discussions
Provide closure for a class session Aim is to have students
summarise content learned, integrate content into existing conceptual
networks lead towards homework and next class
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AL : Example
How to begin a class if we want tomake sure that students understand material from previous class?
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Example: you may begin class by asking the studentsto take two minutes to review their notes from the lastclass and then pair up with someone sitting nearby.
Together the students should come up with a questionabout the material.
Often, this is much more effective in focusing students'attention and identifying confusion than the typical"Does anyone have any questions from last time? No?Then let's begin today's class. . ."
AL : Example
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1. Brainstorming2. Focused Listing3. Opening Question4. Introductory Focused
Discussion Pairs5. Cooperative Note Taking
Pairs6. Reflection7. In-Class Teams8. Think Pair Share9. Note Checking10. Guided Reciprocal Peer
11. TAPPS (Thinking Aloud PairProblem-Solving)
12. Pair Composition13. Pair Testing14. Individual & Pair Testing15. Question and Answer Pairs16. Read & Explain Pairs17. Turn to Neighbour
Summaries18. Two-Minute Paper19. One Final Question20. Closure Review Pairs
AL - Methods
See Appendix for Detail
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MY WAY of AL & CL
1. AL in Normal (Core Subject) Class
2. AL using Peer Instruction Approach
3. CL in Design Class
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Ask students (individually, in pairs, or groups) tobrainstorm about any concept/issue/problem
Give time to brainstorm (2 3 minutes). Randomly call any student to share their
thoughts on the issue. Dont judge ideas purpose of brainstorming is
just to get students to think about an issue.
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Ask the students to take out a sheet of paper. In 1 to 3 minutes - Individually or in pairs, list as
many as he/she/they can about anyconcept/issue/problem
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In 1 minute, ask the students, individually totake a moment to reflect his/her experiencewith any concept/issue/problem.
In 2 minutes, ask every student to come up withan advantage and disadvantage of theconcept/issue/problem.
In 2 minutes, ask the student to turn to apartner and share his/her ideas.
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Lecturer plan a series of questions on the content of theclass. At the beginning of class, Each student formulate his/her own answer Take turns to share answer with partner must listen carefully to
partners answer Pairs create better answer from each initial answer must build on
each others thoughts and synthesize One member of a pair will be randomly selected to explain
answer Then, ask the class, does anyone wants to share his/her knowledge
with other class members Discussion is aimed at promoting advance organizing of
students initial knowledge of the topic to be covered andset expectations for the class
INTRODUCTORY FOCUSED DISCUSSION PAIRS
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Students form pairs to work together during the classperiod.
After a short lecture segment, one partner summarizeshis or her notes to the other.
The other partner adds information or corrects. Each student must take something from the others
notes to improve his/her own notes. The goal is for everyone to improve his or her notes.
COOPERATIVE NOTE-TAKING PAIRS
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Ask the students, individually to reflect on anyconcept/issue/problem that had been learned, andhow they learned/solved it 1 minute.
Ask the students, what do they think about theconcept, and how they learned the concept. 1minute.
Ask them, whether they can see any relationshipbetween the concept and the new topic that they willlearn today, and how to best approach learning thenew topic
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Get class to form teams of 2-4 and choose team recorders.Give teams 30 seconds 5 minutes or m...