Cement Specifications

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<p>STANDARD METHODS OF TEST AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR CEMENT, WATER &amp; SP</p> <p>Lecture by: G. K. Tike, Scientist E-II,&amp; Head Rigid Pavements Division, CRRI</p> <p>What is cement? How it is manufactured?1/26</p> <p>BUILDERS CEMENT</p> <p>IS AN INORGANIC GREY COLOURED FINE POWDER CAPABLE OF REACTION WITH WATER TO PRODUCE STRENGTH GIVING COMPOUNDS, WHICH SET AND HARDEN WITHOUT ANY APPRECIABLE CHANGE WITH REGARD TO ITS PROPERTIES IN COURSE OF TIMEPORTLAND CEMENT CLINKER IS PRODUCED BY BURNING AT ABOUT 1200 O TO 1450 O C A MIX OF - CALCIUM CARBONATE (LIMESTONE OR CHALK) AND AN ALUMINOSILICATE(CLAY OR SHALE) LSF = CaO 2.80 Si O2 + 1.18 Al2O3 + 0.65 Fe2O3</p> <p>What is cement? How it is manufactured?2/26</p> <p>ASH FROM THE COAL INSOLUBLE RESIDUE I R;</p> <p>WHITE CEMENT CLINKER, THE RAW MEAL IS TOTALLY IRON-FREE; IRONGAS OR FURNACE OIL FIRED SYSTEM C3S, C2S, C3A, C4AF ALONG WITH SOME PERICLASE IN CLINKER FORM</p> <p>INTER-GRINDING GYPSUM WITH CLINKER TO NEUTRALIZE THE C3A CaSO4.2H2O IS GYPSUM AND CaSO4. H2O IS PLASTER OF PARIS</p> <p>COMPOSITION OF PORTLAND CEMENT3/26r y Cement Clinker % % 18-24 21.7 4-8 5.3 1.5-4.5 2.6 62-67 67.7 Whit Clinker % 23.8 5.0 0.2 70.8 F ctors r y Cement Clinker 88-102 1.5-4 1-4 98.4 96.2 2.7 2.0 Whit Clinker 97.2 93.8 4.6 25</p> <p>Oxi i O2 Al2 O3 Fe2 O3 Tot l CaO Incl. Free Lime MgO (max. limit) K2 O Na2 O O3 (max. limit) LOI (max. limit) IR (max. limit) Free Lime</p> <p>F% CF % /R A/F</p> <p>0.5-4.0 0.1-1.5 0.1-1.0 2.0-3.0 3.0 1.5 0.5-1.5</p> <p>1.3 0.5 0.2 0.7 1.5</p> <p>0.08 0.03 0.03 0.06 2.5</p> <p>C3 % C2 % C3A % C4AF %</p> <p>-</p> <p>65.4 12.9 9.6 7.9</p> <p>59.4 23.5 12.9 0.6</p> <p>COMPOSITION OF PORTLAND CEMENT4/26</p> <p>LOI = IR = S/R= A/ F = LSF = LCF =</p> <p>LOSS ON IGNITION (CO2 + H2O); ACID INSOLUBLE RESIDUE; Si O2 / (Al2 O3 + Fe2 O3 ); Al2 O3 / Fe2 O3 ; LIME SATURATION FACTOR LIME COMBINATION FACTOR.</p> <p>BOUGE EQUATIONS 1955; WEIGHT % OF EACH OXIDE C4AF = 3.04 Fe2 O3 C3A = 2.65 Al2 O3 1.69 Fe2 O3 C2S = 8.60 Si O2 + 1.08 Fe2 O3 + 5.07 Al2 O3 3.07 CaO C3S = 4.07 CaO 7.60 Si O2 1.43 Fe2 O3 6.72 Al2 O3</p> <p>COMPOSITION OF PORTLAND CEMENT5/26</p> <p>33 GRADE ORDINARY (IS : ) C3S C2S C3A C4AF 45 % 27 % 11 % 10 %</p> <p>43 GRADE MEDIUM (IS: ) 50 % 22 % 11 % 10 %</p> <p>53 GRADE HIGH (IS : ) 55 % 17 % 11 % 9%</p> <p>LOW HEAT ( IS: ) 30 % 46 % 5% 13 %</p> <p>WHAT IS UNDERSTOOD BY CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF CEMENT? 6/26 FINENESS, (m 2 / kg) WATER FOR NORMAL CONSISTENCY, (%) INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME, (min.) STRENGTH, (COMPRESSIVE - 3 , 7, 28 DAY) (N /mm 2 ) DRYING SHRINKAGE, (%) SOUNDNESS, (PASS / FAIL) PERMEABILITY, ( ml / cm / sec.)</p> <p>IS: 4031 1988 INDIAN STANDARD METHODS OF PHYSICAL TESTS FOR HYDRAULIC CEMENT7/26</p> <p>PART 1</p> <p>DETERMINATION OF FINENESS BY DRY SIEVING (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT APRIL 1992</p> <p>PART 2 DETERMINATION OF FINENESS BY SPECIFIC SURFACE BY AIR PERMEABILITY METHOD (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT MARCH 1992 PART 3 DETERMINATION OF SOUNDNESS (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT NOVEMBER 1991 DETERMINATION OF CONSISTENCY OF STANDARD CEMENT PASTE (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT AUGUST 1993 DETERMINATION OF INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIMES (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT NOVEMBER 1991</p> <p>PART 4</p> <p>PART 5</p> <p>IS: 4031 1988 INDIAN STANDARD METHODS OF PHYSICAL TESTS FOR HYDRAULIC CEMENT8/26 PART 6 DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT OTHER THAN MASONRY CEMENT (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT JUNE 1992 PART 7 DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY CEMENT (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT MARCH 1992 PART 8 DETERMINATION OF TRANSVERSE AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF PLASTIC MORTAR USING PRISM (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT JANUARY 1993 PART 9 DETERMINATION OF HEAT OF HYDRATION (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT AUGUST 1993 PART 10 DETERMINATION OF DRYING SHRINKAGE (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT AUGUST 1993</p> <p>IS: 4031 1988 INDIAN STANDARD METHODS OF PHYSICAL TESTS FOR HYDRAULIC CEMENT9/26</p> <p>PART 11 PART 12</p> <p>DETERMINATION OF DENSITY (FIRST REVISION) DETERMINATION OF AIR CONTENT OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT MORTAR (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT MARCH, 1992. MEASUREMENT OF WATER RETENTIVITY OF MASONRY CEMENT (FIRST REVISION) FIRST REPRINT SEPTEMBER 1992 DETERMINATION OF FALSE SET (FIRST REPRINT JANUARY 1993) DETERMINATION OF FINENESS BY WET SIEVING (FIRST REPRINT JULY 1994)</p> <p>PART 13</p> <p>PART 14</p> <p>PART 15</p> <p>IS:2386-1983 INDIAN STANDARD METHODS OF TEST FOR AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE 10/26 PART - I: PARTICLE SIZE AND SHAPE PART - II: ESTIMATION OF DELETERIOUS MATTER PART - III: SPECIFIC GRAVITY, DENSITY, VOIDS AND BULKING PART-IV: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PART - V: SOUNDNESS PART - VI: MEASURING MORTAR MAKING PROPERTIES OF FINE AGGREGATES PART - VII: ALKALI AGGRGATE REACTIVITY PART - VIII: PETROGRAPHIC EXAMINATION</p> <p>IS: 2386-1963 [PART-III] SPECIFIC GRAVITY, DENSITY, VOIDS, ABSORPTION AND BULKING 11/26SPECIFIC GRAVITY= OVEN DRIED WT [SSD WT IN AIR- SSD WT IN WATER]</p> <p>APPARENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY = OVEN DRIED WT OVEN DRIED WT - SSD WT IN WATER WATER ABSORPTION = 100 X [SSD WT IN AIR-OVEN DRIED WT] OVEN DRIED WT</p> <p>BULK DENSITY = WT/ VOLUME IN kg / liter VOIDS % = [SPECIFIC GRAVITY- BULK DENSITY] X 100</p> <p>IS: 2386-1963 [PART-IV] MECHANICAL PROPERTIES12/26</p> <p>AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE= [Fr. PASSING 2.36mm] x 100 WT OF AGGREG. SAMPLE 10% FINES VALUE, LOAD REQD. TO PRODUCE 10 % FINES= [14 x x] where x = load in tonnes, and = mean % of fines at [ + 4] x- tonnes load AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE = [Fr. PASSING 2.36mm] x 100 WT OF SAMPLE AGGREGATE ABRASION VALUE [LOS ANGELES] = [WT OF SAMPLE - WT RET. ON 1.70mm] x 100 WT OF SAMPLE</p> <p>QUALITY SPECIFICATION OF WATER FOR MIXING &amp; CURING IS: 456- 2000 Indian Standard Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice 13/26A)TO NEUTRALIZE 100 ML OF SAMPLE, USING PHENOLPHTHALEIN INDICATOR, SHOULD NOT REQUIRE MORE THAN 5 ML OF 0.02 NORMAL NaOH SOLUTION [DETAILS ARE AS PER IS 3025 (PART 22).] B)TO NEUTRALIZE 100 ML OF SAMPLE, USING MIXED INDICATOR, SHOULD NOT REQUIRE MORE THAN 25 ML OF 0.02 NORMAL H2SO4 SOLUTION [DETAILS ARE AS PER IS 3025 (PART 23).] C) PERMISSIBLE LIMITS OF SOLIDS PERMISSIBLE LIMIT, MAX. SL. TESTED AS PER NO. 1. ORGANIC IS (P T 18) 200 mg / l . INORGANIC IS (P T 1) 3000 mg / l . SULPHATES ( S S ) IS (P T ) 400 mg / l . CHLORIDES ( S CL ) IS (P T ) 2000 mg / l for concrete n t c ntainin embedded steel and reinf rced c ncrete w rk . SUSPENDED MATTER IS (P T 17) 2000 mg / l</p> <p>IS: 4032 1985 INDIAN STANDARD METHOD OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC CEMENT14/26</p> <p>IS 3812 : S ECIFICATION FOR FLY ASH FOR USE AS O OLANA AND ADMI TUREFly A h r I F ri rp r ti i r t i li -p zz l f t r f rtl zz l t rt r ixt r , f r t.</p> <p>Fly A h</p> <p>r</p> <p>II F r i rp r ti i t rt r r t i li p zz l ixt r ( yb f r C if IS 1489-19 6 i p r itti it.)</p> <p>CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS OF FLY ASH15/26</p> <p>SR. CHARACTERISTIC NO. 1 SiO 2 + Al2 O 3 + Fe 2 O 3 , % Min. 2 SiO 2 , % Min. 3 MgO , % Max. 4 SO 3 , % Max.</p> <p>REQUIREM ENT 70.0 35.0 5.0 2.75</p> <p>5 Alkalis as Na 2 O , % Max.* in case of reactive 1.5 aggregates, IS 4032 : 1968. 6 Loss on Ignition, % Max. 12.0</p> <p>PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS</p> <p>GRADE OF FLY ASHI II250 3.016/26</p> <p>1 2 3</p> <p>FINENESS- SP. SUR. IN m 2/kg BY 320 BLAINES PERMEABILITY METHOD, min. LIME REACTIVITY N/mm2 , min. 4.0</p> <p>4 5</p> <p>COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AT 28 DAYS, NOT LESS THAN 80 N/mm2 , min. % OF THE STRENGTH OF CORRESPONDING PLAIN CEMENT MORTAR CUBES DRYING SHRINKAGE, % max. 0.15 0.10 SOUNDNESS (AUTOCLAVE), EXPANSION % max. 0.8 0.8</p> <p>CHARACTERISTICS 33CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS</p> <p>GRADE OF CEMENT 4353PPC-I FLY ASH</p> <p>PPC-II CALCINED CLAY 17/26</p> <p>1. CAO/ OXIDES RATIO</p> <p>NOT MORE THAN 1.02 AND NOT LESS THAN 0.66</p> <p>NOT MORE THAN 1.02 AND NOT LESS THAN 0.66</p> <p>NOT MORE THAN 1.02 AND NOT LESS THAN 0.80</p> <p>FLY ASH (OF FINENESS MIN. 320 M2 / G AND LIME REACTI ITY ALUE NOT LESS THAN 4.0 MPA; UNIFORMLY LENDED OR INTERGROUN D ITH OPC IS 269: 1989; HOMOGENEI TY OF MIX + 3 %) MIN. 15 % AND MAX. 35 % Y EIGHT OF OPC</p> <p>CALCINED CLAY POZZOLANA (OF FINENESS MIN. 320 M2 / G AND LIME REACTI ITY ALUE NOT LESS THAN 4.0 MPA; UNIFORMLY LENDED OR INTERGROUND ITH OPC - IS 269: 1989; HOMOGENEITY OF MIX + 3 %) MIN. 15 % AND MAX. 35 % Y EIGHT OF OPC</p> <p>CHARACTERISTICS 33-</p> <p>GRADE OF CEMENT 4353PPC-I FLY ASH</p> <p>PPC-II CALCINED CLAY 18/26</p> <p>CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS: 2. ALUMINA/IRON OXIDE NOT LESS THAN 3.INSOL. RESIDUE, NOT MORE THAN RATIO 0.66</p> <p>0.66</p> <p>0.66</p> <p>-</p> <p>-</p> <p>4.0</p> <p>3.0</p> <p>3.0</p> <p>4.0(100-X) 100 WHERE X IS OF FLY ASH IN PPC 6.0</p> <p>X</p> <p>4.0(100X) 100 WHERE X IS OF CAL. CLAY PO . IN PPC 6.0</p> <p>X</p> <p>4. MgO NOT MORE THAN</p> <p>6.0</p> <p>6.0</p> <p>6.0</p> <p>CHARACTERISTICS 33-</p> <p>GRADE OF CEMENT 4353PPC-I FLY ASH</p> <p>PPC-II CALCINED CLAY 19/26</p> <p>CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS: 5. TOTAL SULPHUR AS SO3 FOR C3A 5 OR LESS :SO3 NOT MORE THAN 2.5 % FOR C3A MORE THAN 5 :SO3 NOT MORE THAN 3.0 % SO3 NOT MORE THAN 3.0</p> <p>6. TOTAL LOSS ON IGNITION, NOT MORE THAN</p> <p>5.0</p> <p>5.0</p> <p>4.0</p> <p>5.0</p> <p>5.0</p> <p>CHARACTERISTICS 33-</p> <p>GRADE OF CEMENT 4353PPC-I FLY ASH</p> <p>PPC-II CALCINED CLAY 20/26</p> <p>PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: FINENESS NOT LESS THAN, m2 / kg</p> <p>225</p> <p>225</p> <p>225</p> <p>300</p> <p>300</p> <p>SOUNDNESS EXPANSION NOT MORE THAN, mm 10 LE- CHATELIERS :AUTOCLAVE: 0.8 IF IT FAILS THEN :AERATION (KEEP 75 MM DEPTH OF LAYER AT 50 TO 80 RH, FOR 7 DAYS). RE-TEST FOR SOUNDNESS. RE-TEST NOT MORE THAN LE- CHATELIERS :- mm 5 AUTOCLAVE: 0.6</p> <p>10 0.8</p> <p>10 0.8</p> <p>10 0.8</p> <p>10 0.8</p> <p>5 0.6</p> <p>5 0.6</p> <p>5 0.6</p> <p>5 0.6</p> <p>CHARACTERISTICS 33PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: SETTING TIME INITIAL, NOT LESS THAN, min. FINAL, NOT MORE THAN, min. FOR FALSE SET: REMIX AND BREAK THE FALSE SET, RE-TEST.</p> <p>GRADE OF CEMENT 4353PPC-I FLY ASH</p> <p>PPC-II CALCINED CLAY 21/26</p> <p>30 600</p> <p>30 600</p> <p>30 600</p> <p>30 600</p> <p>30 600</p> <p>COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, PROGRESSIVE INCREASE IN STRENGTH, NOT LESS THAN 72 1 HR. 16 MPA 168 2 HR. 22 MPA 672 4 HR. 33 MPA TRANSVERSE STRENGTH (IS 4031 PT.8:1988) DRYING SHRINKAGE NOT MORE THAN</p> <p>23 MPA 33 MPA 43 MPA</p> <p>27 MPA 37 MPA 53 MPA</p> <p>16 MPA 22 MPA 33 MPA</p> <p>16 MPA 22 MPA 33 MPA</p> <p>MUTUALLY AGREED BETWEEN PURCHASER &amp; SUPPLIER.</p> <p>-</p> <p>-</p> <p>-</p> <p>0.15</p> <p>0.15</p> <p>IS 516-1959 INDIAN STANDARD METHODS OF TESTS FOR STRENGTH OF CONCRETE: COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 22/26SAMPLE PREPARATION VOLU E OF CONC ETE- surplus by 10 percent WORKABILITY IS 1199-1959, CUBE- OULDS SIZE 15 cm r 10 cm cube CYLINDERS SIZE - 15 cm dia. x 0 cm len th, TAMPING BAR: COMPACTION16 mm dia. 60 cm lon bullet pointed at lower end. 5 strokes per layer for 15 cm cubes and 5 strokes per layer for 10 cm cubes, -layers fillin , finishin with trowel and cover. at 7 + 2 oC in fresh water or saturated lime solution till the time of testin .</p> <p>CURING -</p> <p>IS 516-1959 INDIAN STANDARD METHODS OF TESTS FOR STRENGTH OF CONCRETE: COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 23/26CORE SPECIMEN Hei ht prior to cappin less than 95 percent of the diameter shall be rejected, after cappin the H/D ratio should be at least one, Correction factor for H/D ratio between 1 and 2 as per the relationship iven, CORE CAPPING Neat cement and Sulphur cappin , EQUIVALENT CUBE STRENGTH FROM CORE STRENGTH multiply by 5 / . AGE AT TEST: 7 and 28 days, 13 weeks and 1 year. EQUIVALENT CUBE STRENGTH FROM BROKEN BEAM SPECIMEN Bearin plates of thickness 6.5 to 19 mm metal plates, 10 cm square or 15 cm square as per beam specimen depth, rate of loadin 140 kg / sq. cm / min, result is 5 percent greater than cube strengths. REPORTING identification mark, date of test, age of specimen, curing conditions, including date of manufacture of specimen in the field, weight of the specimen, dimensions of the specimen, cross sectional area, maximum load, compressive strength and appearance of fractured faces of concrete and type of fracture.</p> <p>IS 516-1959 INDIAN STANDARD METHODS OF TESTS FOR STRENGTH OF CONCRETE: FLEXURAL STRENGTH24/26 SAMPLE PREPARATION Coarse and fine aggregates, proportioning, weighing, mixing concrete- minimum 2 minutes in machine till concrete is uniform. VOLUME OF CONCRETE: WORKABILITY: BEAM-MOULD SIZE : 10 percent in excess over and above the requirement. IS 1199-1959, 15 x 15 x 70 cm beam, OR 10 x 10 x 50 cm beam Weight 2 kg, 25-mm sq. ramming flat face, 40-cm long. Casting, Curing the same way.</p> <p> TAMPING BAR :</p> <p>IS 516-1959 INDIAN STANDARD METHODS OF TESTS FOR STRENGTH OF CONCRETE: FLEXURAL STRENGTH 25/26CALCULATION fs = [ xl] /[ x d2 ] If a = distance between line of fracture and the nearer support measured on the center- line of tensile side of specimen, in cm, When a is greater than 20 cm for 15 cm specimen, or greater than 13.3 cm for a 10 cm specimen,</p> <p>fs = [3 x a ] / [ x d2 ] less than 20 cm but greater than 17 cm for 15 cm specimen, or less than 11 cm for a 10 cm specimen b = measured width in cm of the specimen, d = measured depth in cm of the specimen l = length n cm of the span on which the beam is supported, = maximum load in kg applied to the specimen. When a is</p> <p>Where</p> <p>IF a IS LESS THAN 17 CM (FOR 15-CM BEAM) OR 11 CM (FOR 10-CM BEAM) THEN THE RESULTS SHALL BE DISCARDED.</p> <p>IS 516-1959 INDIAN STANDARD METHODS OF TESTS FOR STRENGTH OF CONCRETE: MODULUS OF ELASTICITY 26/26Cylinders of 15-cm dia. and 30 cm length. Or cores of H/D ratio at least 2. PREPARATION OF SPECIMEN: Same As above, age of testing at 28 da s. TESTING MACHINE AND EXTENSOMETERS: Two extensometers of gauge length not less than 10.2 cm and not more than half the length of the specimen capable of measuring strains to an accuracy of 2 x 10 6. PROCEDURE: average Com ressive strength of 3 s ecimens, C = 1/3 Av. C.S. nearest 5 kg/ sq. cm. Extensometers on opposite sides parallel to axis, load applied @ 140 kg / sq. cm / min. till (C+5) kg/sq. cm Maintain this load for a minute and then graduall reduc e to 1.5 kg / sq. cm when extensometer reading is taken. Load is again applied to repeat the reading. Then the third time repeat load and reading taken. The last two readings should be in agreement to 5 percent of each other and repeat that once more till the reading difference is less than 5 percent. CALCULATION: The stress strain curves (straight lines) for the two-extensometer readings for the last two load-cycles are plotted. The slopes give the average E-value expressed in kg/ sq. cm nearest to 1000 kg / sq. cm. SIZE OF SPECIMEN:</p>

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