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Cellular Respiration Chapter 5 Notes

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  • Cellular Respiration

    Chapter 5 Notes

  • Some Terms to Know

    Aerobic = WITH oxygen

    Anaerobic = withOUT oxygen

    NAD+ electron carrier = NADH

    FAD electron carrier = FADH2

    Cellular Respiration a way for cells to make

    energy when oxygen is present

    Fermentation a way for cells to make energy

    when oxygen is not present

  • Cellular Respiration Overview

    Transformation of chemical energy in food into

    energy cells can use in the form of ATP

    Overall Reaction:

    C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (energy)

  • Decomposition Reactionwhy?

  • Hydrolysis

    When water is

    inserted into a

    bond to break it!

    Most biological

    decomposition

    reactions involve

    hydrolysis

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.clker.com/cliparts/6/8/9/3/1195429510337449011tomas_arad_water_drop.svg.hi.png&imgrefurl=http://www.clker.com/clipart-10571.html&usg=__YzlMJB45W9o4KbjqXBZdMTjnwoA=&h=592&w=402&sz=69&hl=en&start=19&um=1&tbnid=Sa2VUNlYxQHBpM:&tbnh=135&tbnw=92&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwater%2Bdroplet%2Banimation%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1

  • Cellular Respiration in 3 Stages

    Glycolysis in cytoplasm of cell

    Krebs Cycle in the mitochondrial matrix

    Electron Transport Chain after the Krebs Cycle

    and in the cristae (membranes) of mitochondria

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=TocHzTYqfMMCoM&tbnid=S5Ct_cnbMNkebM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dreamstime.com%2Froyalty-free-stock-images-mitochondria-image14218389&ei=o5zzUrCrGIHWkQeluICwBw&bvm=bv.60799247,d.aWc&psig=AFQjCNH2xo0DrPw9s2_aWdp1C-0xP4iA4A&ust=1391783452264008

  • Cellular Respiration Overview

    Breakdown of glucose begins in the cytoplasm

    Then energy is made in one of two pathways

    Anaerobic cellular respiration (aka fermentation)

    Aerobic cellular respiration

  • Diagram of the Reaction

  • C.R. Reactions

    Glycolysis Requires 2 ATP molecules

    - Occurs in cytoplasm of all cells

    Series of reactions that break glucose molecule down

    into two 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate (aka

    pyruvic acid)

    Gains 2 ATP molecules for every one glucose

    molecule broken down

    Gains 2 NADH per glucose molecule

    All organisms from simple bacteria to humans perform

    it the same way

  • Glycolysis Reaction

  • Glycolysis Reaction Cont.

  • Anaerobic Cellular Respiration /Fermentation

    Some organisms thrive in environments with little or no oxygen

    Marshes, bogs, gut of animals, sewage treatment ponds

    No oxygen used= anaerobic

    Results in no more ATP after glycolysis, final steps in these

    pathways serve ONLY to regenerate NAD+ so it can return to pick up

    more electrons and hydrogens in glycolysis.

    Occurs in cytoplasm

    End products such as ethanol and CO2 (single cell fungi (yeast) in

    beer/bread) or lactic acid (muscle cells)

  • Aerobic Cellular Respiration

    Oxygen required=aerobic

    2 more sets of reactions that occur in the

    mitochondria

    1. Krebs Cycle

    2. Electron Transport Chain

  • Krebs Cycle

    Completes the breakdown of glucose

    Takes the pyruvate (3-carbons) and breaks it down.

    The carbon and oxygen atoms end up in CO2 and H2O

    Hydrogens and electrons are stripped from the

    pyruvates and loaded onto NAD+ and FAD to produce

    NADH and FADH2 (reduction).

    Only 2 more ATP are made but loads of NADH

    and FADH2 with H+ and electrons, which move to

    the 3rd stageETC

  • http://highered.mcgraw-

    hill.com/sites/0072507470/stude

    nt_view0/chapter25/animation_

    _how_the_krebs_cycle_works__

    quiz_1_.html

    http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__how_the_krebs_cycle_works__quiz_1_.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__how_the_krebs_cycle_works__quiz_1_.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__how_the_krebs_cycle_works__quiz_1_.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__how_the_krebs_cycle_works__quiz_1_.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__how_the_krebs_cycle_works__quiz_1_.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__how_the_krebs_cycle_works__quiz_1_.html

  • //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Citric_acid_cycle_with_aconitate_2.svg

  • Electron Transport Chain

    Electron carriers are loaded with electrons and

    protons from the Krebs cycle and move to this

    chain-like a series of steps (staircase).

    As electrons drop down stairs, energy released

    to form a total of 34 ATP

    Oxygen waits at bottom of staircase, picks up

    electrons and protons and in doing so becomes

    water

  • Electron Carriers

    NAD + electrons = NADH

    FAD + electrons = FADH2

    NADH is worth 3 ATP in the ETC

    FADH2 is worth 2 ATP in the ETC

  • Energy Tally

    38 ATP for aerobic vs. 2 ATP for anaerobic

    Glycolysis 2 ATP

    Krebs 2 ATP

    Electron Transport 34 ATP

    38 ATP

    Anaerobic organisms cant be too energetic but are important for global recycling of carbon

  • http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=xN-RE4SBDXPdPM&tbnid=saM1oRMl4fp33M:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.personal.psu.edu/smh5089/blogs/henning/technical-description.html&ei=bZryUsizDZWksQT81IDoCQ&bvm=bv.60799247,d.aWc&psig=AFQjCNHtbfmHqKt8oeqaej2rkfOm7KlZVg&ust=1391717339807238

  • http://www.brookscole.com/chemistry_d/templ

    ates/student_resources/shared_resources/animat

    ions/oxidative/oxidativephosphorylation.html

    http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/04

    70003790/animations/electron_transport/electr

    on_transport.htm

  • Cellular Respiration - heat

    Cell Resp. releases some

    energy as heat which help

    keep our internal temps

    constant.

    Brown fat- more

    mitochondria so faster CR

    and more heat = important

    for hibernating animals and

    infants

  • Cellular Resp-heat production in

    plants Some plants produce

    enough heat energy

    so that organic

    compounds break

    down, causing an

    odor. Insects flock to

    the odor plant gets

    pollinated

  • Mitochondrial Disease

    Diseases of the mitochondria appear to

    cause the most damage to cells of the

    brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscles, kidney

    and the endocrine and respiratory

    systems. http://www.umdf.org/site/pp.aspx?c=8qKOJ0MvF7LUG&b=7934629

    http://www.umdf.org/site/pp.aspx?c=8qKOJ0MvF7LUG&b=7934629

  • More Mitochondrial Functions

    Non-ATP-related functions are intimately involved with most of the

    major metabolic pathways used by a cell to build, break down, and

    recycle its molecular building blocks. Cells cannot even make the

    RNA and DNA they need to grow and function without mitochondria.

    The building blocks of RNA and DNA are purines and pyrimidines.

    Mitochondria contain the rate-limiting enzymes for pyrimidine

    biosynthesis (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and heme synthesis

    (d-amino levulinic acid synthetase) required to make hemoglobin. In

    the liver, mitochondria are specialized to detoxify ammonia in the

    urea cycle. Mitochondria are also required for cholesterol

    metabolism, for estrogen and testosterone synthesis, for

    neurotransmitter metabolism, and for free radical production and

    detoxification. They do all this in addition to breaking down

    (oxidizing) the fat, protein, and carbohydrates we eat and drink.

  • Facultative aerobes - Can survive for

    longs periods of

    time with or without

    oxygen

    They switch back

    and forth between

    cell resp &

    fermentation

    depending on the

    availability of

    oxygen

    Ex: staph/ecoli

  • Obligate Anaerobes-

    Does not require

    oxygen and only lives

    in an anaerobic env.

    Use fermentation/

    anaerobic respiration

    to yield energy

    Much less ATP is

    made this way

    EX: Clostridium

    bacteria

  • Obligate Aerobes-

    REQUIRE oxygen

    for respiration or

    they wont live

    Yield much more

    energy than

    obligate

    anaerobes

    EX: plants,

    animals

  • Nutrient Cycles

    Biogeochemical cycles

    Chemicals are limited, those essential for

    life must be recycled.

    Elements move through a global cycle

    (carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen)

    Phosphorous and sulfur dont move much

    stick around in the soil.

    Carbon Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, Water cycle

  • The Carbon Connection

    Photosynthesis uses it (all photosynthetic

    organisms)

    CR creates it (so, all living things)

    Cars, factories, appliances emit it

    Decaying organic matter releases it

    Adds to global warming

  • OhhhhCarbon

    Carbon is the backbone of life on Earth. We are made of

    carbon, we eat carbon, and our civilizationsour

    economies, our homes, our means of transportare

    built on carbon. We need carbon, but that need is also

    entwined with one of the most serious problems facing

    us today: global climate change.

    Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the

    Universe. Most of Earths carbonabout 65,500 billion

    metric tonsis stored in rocks. The rest is in the ocean,

    atmosphere, plants, soil, and fossil fuels

  • http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=label+the+carbon+cycle&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=sv-fkAQg9v3esM&tbnid=CVE5aqzHecHkPM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencelearn.org.nz%2FContexts%2FThe-Ocean-in-Action%2FSci-Media%2FAnimations-and-Interactives%2FCarbon-cycle&ei=pCQIUbPEI4br0QHAl4DoAg&bvm=bv.41524429,d.dmQ&psig=AFQjCNGiy_nmGQhh8-qrj5eanfzHl__CxA&ust=1359574565039202

  • Your carbon footprint?

  • Carbon Credits

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=how+do+carbon+credits+work%3F&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=6FexCPGSyd5gEM&tbnid=8HJvsrbFNgceAM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenbrideguide.com%2Fcarbonfree-carbonfundorg&ei=szcIUcW8L7K40AHQqoGIAw&psig=AFQjCNELOQIVVanjUesG8gRSWSuai8N4cA&ust=1359579444332858http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=how+do+carbon+credits+work%3F&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=SV2ILaOcnYv-ZM&tbnid=HNn_xA4YElb-UM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Funambig.com%2Fcarbon-credits-chosen-over-kids-in-b-c%2F&ei=szcIUcW8L7K40AHQqoGIAw&psig=AFQjCNELOQIVVanjUesG8gRSWSuai8N4cA&ust=1359579444332858