Cells and Heredity Chapter 4 Modern Genetics Section 1 Human Inheritance.

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  • Cells and Heredity Chapter 4 Modern Genetics Section 1 Human Inheritance
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  • Section 1 Human Inheritance: Objectives To explain what multiple alleles are. To explain why some human traits show a large variety of phenotypes. a large variety of phenotypes. To explain how environmental factors can alter the effects of a gene. To explain what determines sex and why some sex linked traits are more common in males than in females. To describe how geneticists use pedigrees.
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  • Section 1 Human Genetics Vocab 1. multiple alleles Three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait.
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  • 2. sex-linked gene A gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome
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  • 3. carrier A person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dominant allele, but does not have the trait.
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  • 4. pedigree A chart or family tree that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait.
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  • Notes 1. ____________ exists in pairs. Chromosomes
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  • 2. Two traits controlled by many genes are: A. B. height skin color
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  • 3. Three environmental factors that can effect height are: A B C Lack of protein Lack of minerals Lack of vitamins
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  • 4. There are __________ chromosomes in each body cell. 23 pairs of
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  • 5. Males have the ______ combination of chromosomes, while females have the _______ combination XY XX
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  • 6. The _________ determines the gender of the offspring. sperm
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  • 7. ________ are more likely to have a sex-linked trait that is controlled by a ______________ allele. Males recessive
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  • Cells and Heredity Chapter 4 Modern Genetics Section 2 Human Genetic Disorders
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  • Section 2 Human Genetic Disorders: Objectives To describe the causes and symptoms of four human genetic disorders To explain how genetic disorders are diagnosed.
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  • Vocab 5. genetic disorder An abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes.
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  • 6. amniocentesis A technique by which a small amount of the fluid that surrounds a developing baby is removed; the fluid is analyzed to determine whether the baby will have a genetic disorder.
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  • 7. karyotype A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs.
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  • Notes 1. ______________________ are caused by _____________________, or changes in a persons ______________. Genetic Disorders mutations DNA
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  • 2. Describe each order and its cause A. Cystic Fibrosis Affect- Cause- Causes think mucus to build up in a persons lungs and intestines A mutation that is carried on a recessive allele.
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  • B. Sickle-Cell Affect- Cause- A mutation that affects the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen Sickle shaped red blood cells that can not carry as much oxygen as normal blood cells
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  • C. Hemophilia Affect- Cause- A disorder in which a persons blood clots very slowly or not at all People with the disorder do not produce one of the proteins needed for normal blood clotting
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  • D. Down Syndrome Affect- Cause- A distinctive physical appearance, some degree of mental retardation, heart defects. Many people with down syndrome lead full lives. A persons cells have an extra copy of chromosome 21.
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  • Cells and Heredity Chapter 4 Modern Genetics Section 3 Advances in Genetics
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  • Section 3 Advances in Genetics: Objectives To describe three ways in which people have developed organisms with desired traits. To explain how DNA fingerprinting is used To state the goal of the Human Genome Project.
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  • Vocab 8. Selective breeding The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation.
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  • 9. Inbreeding A selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed.
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  • 10. Hybridization A selective breeding method in which two genetically different individuals are crossed.
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  • 11. Clone An organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced.
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  • 12. Genetic engineering The transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits.
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  • 13. Gene therapy The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder.
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  • 14. Genome All of the DNA in one cell of an organism.
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  • Notes 1. Two examples of selective breeding A. B. Dairy cows are bred to produce larger quantities of milk Varieties of fruits and vegetables that are bred to resist diseases
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  • 2. Two examples of inbreeding A B Some purebred horses Purebred dogs, such as Labrador retrievers and German sheperds
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  • 3. One problem with inbreeding is: Increases the chances of inheriting alleles that lead to genetic disorders.
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  • 4. Two examples of hybridization A. B. Crossing corn that produces many kernels With corn that is resistant to diseases A mule coming from the cross of a mare and a donkey. The mule has the courage, stamina, and surefootedness of the donkey with the strength of a horse
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  • 5. A common example of cloning is *To make a cutting from a plant. The cutting can grow into a new plant
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  • 6. DNA samples from _______, ______, and _____ can be used to identify a person. hair skinblood
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  • 7. No two people, except _______________ have the same DNA. Identical twins

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