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Cell Division and Mitosis

Cell Division and Mitosis. gResources/MolecularBiology/DN

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  • Cell Division and Mitosis
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  • http://www.johnkyrk.com/mitosis.html http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/multimedia/mitosis/ http://www.bioteach.ubc.ca/Teachin gResources/MolecularBiology/DN AReplication.swf http://www.dnai.org/text/mediasho wcase/index2.html?id=584
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  • How do little elephants grow up to be BIG elephants? By making more cells.
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  • DNA Because DNA stores genetic information and is replicated to pass information from cell-to- cell and generation-to- generation. Why is DNA important?
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  • Cell Division 1.Replication 2.Mitosis 3. Cytokinesis Why do cells need to divide?
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  • 1.To make new cells (if you are injured or growing) 2.Pass on your genes to next generation (sex)
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  • Cell Cycle 1.Interphase 2.Prophase 3.Metaphase 4.Anaphase 5.Telophase 6.Cytokinesis Which phases are part of mitosis?
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  • Cell Cycle Which cycle is the longest? Interphase
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  • Interphase occurs before mitosis begins Chromosomes are __________ (# doubles) Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy(sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase CELL MEMBRANE Nucleus Cytoplasm copied
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  • Interphase Animal Cell Plant Cell What happens to the chromosomes during Interphase? The chromosomes double
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  • INTERPHASE DNA is replicated. During DNA replication the DNA separates into two strands and produces two new complementary strands. Remember A binds to ___ and C binds to ___. T G
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  • INTERPHASE DNA is packed into ______________ after replication. chromatin duplicated chromosome Chromosomes
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  • Chromosomes that are duplicated during Interphase are called?
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  • INTERPHASE DNA condensed into visible Chromosomes 95% of the time DNA looks like this in the _________. Nucleus
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  • Prophase 1 st step in Mitosis Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide) ____________ (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite end of the cell. Spindle fibers form between the poles. Centrioles Sister chromatids Spindle fibers Centrioles
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  • Prophase Animal Cell Plant Cell Spindle fibers Centrioles Is the right picture or left picture of a Plant cell?
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  • Metaphase 2 nd step in Mitosis _____________(or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers. Centrioles Spindle fibers Chromatids
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  • ____________ Animal Cell Plant Cell METAPHASE
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  • Anaphase 3 rd step in Mitosis ______________(or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell. Centrioles Spindle fibers Chromatids
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  • ____________ Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm ANAPHASE
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  • Telophase 4th s tep in Mitosis Two new _________form. Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods). Mitosis ends. Nuclei Chromat in nuclei
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  • ___________ Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm TELOPHASE
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  • _____________ occurs after mitosis Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes. CYTOKINESIS
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  • Cytokinesis Is this an animal or plant cell? Cleave furrow in a dividing frog cell. In Animal Cells, a Cleavage Furrow Forms and Separates Daughter Cells
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  • Which process is pictured below? -Cell Division -Mitosis or -Cytokinesis
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  • Cytokinesis Is this an animal or plant cell?
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  • Which phase has chromatids lined up in the middle? Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis
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  • REMEMBER! I Interphase P Prophase M Metaphase A Anaphase T Telophase C Cytokinesis IPMATC I Pray M ore At T he Church
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  • Which phase is first in the cell cycle? Cell Cycle
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  • 30 The Cell Cycle INTERPHASE - INTERMISSION PROPHASE - PREPARE METAPHASE - MIDDLE ANAPHASE - APART TELOPHASE TWO NUCLEI CYTOKINESIS - CELLS 30
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  • Cell Cycle Why does the cell cycle precisely divide the duplicated chromosomes into two? interphase prophase metaphase To make each new cell identical with a complete set of genetic instructions.
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  • Mitosis Precisely and Evenly Divides Duplicated Chromosomes Is cytokinesis part of mitosis? No, neither is Interphase.
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  • Mitosis in Action What is the Blue stuff? DNA
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  • Cancer Progression There are many different forms of cancer, affecting different cell types and working in different ways. All start out with mutations in specific genes called oncogenes. The normal, unmutated versions of the oncogenes provide the control mechanisms for the cell. The mutations are caused by radiation, certain chemicals (carcinogens), and various random events during DNA replication. Once a single cell starts growing uncontrollably, it forms a tumor, a small mass of cells. No further progress can occur unless the cancerous mass gets its own blood supply. Angiogenesis is the process of developing a system of small arteries and veins to supply the tumor. Most tumors dont reach this stage. A tumor with a blood supply will grow into a large mass. Eventually some of the cancer cells will break loose and move through the blood supply to other parts of the body, where they start to multiply. This process is called metastasis. It occurs because the tumor cells lose the proteins on their surface that hold them to other cells.