CCS by Microalgae A pilot project in the thermal power plant of NALCO, India

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International Workshop on Public Education, Training, and Community Outreach for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage
July 30 - 31, 2014 Decatur, Illinois, USA. CCS by Microalgae A pilot project in the thermal power plant of NALCO, India. Prof. Ranjan R. Pradhan (PhD) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of CCS by Microalgae A pilot project in the thermal power plant of NALCO, India

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CCS by Microalgae A pilot project in the thermal power plant of NALCO, IndiaProf. Ranjan R. Pradhan (PhD)Proprietor, Indocan Technology Solutions (Canada) C. V. Raman College of Engineering

International Workshop on Public Education, Training, and Community Outreach for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and StorageJuly 30 - 31, 2014 Decatur, Illinois, USA

ContentsClimate change and our projectConcept of the project Implementation of the projectCharacterization of the Product from the projectConclusion

Carbon Sequestration Pilot Plant NALCO, - CPPAngul, Odisha, India

The scale of CO2 disposal need far exceeds today's CO2 uses.

Sustainable CO2 capture and storage is at a reasonable cost can be a good alternative to utilize the abundantly available coal resources in India.

To solve the negative consequences there are two broad ways of fixing the global warming made by mankind.

These are: CDR (Carbon dioxide removal) and SRM (Solar radiation management)How to Address Global Climate Change?

CDR (Carbon dioxide removal)Sustainable Carbon Capture For Thermal Power PlantsThermal power plants, though a developmental need for India is a major GHG polluter (Thermal power plants contribute 25 % of the global GHG emission)

Extent of Pollution & Opportunity

500 MW thermal power plant generates about 8000 tons of CO2 per day

(This is a huge resource if can be reused)

500 MW thermal power plant generates about 8000 tons of CO2 per day

Forest land needed to capture this emission

A hectare of pine forest can capture about 1 ton carbon dioxide / year, So we need about 29200 sq km land or roughly 20 % of total area of Odisha

The dilemma!

Either restrict the growth & promotion of many thermal power plants

Or facilitate adequate forest coverage to compensate for the emissions

Neither of the above can be acceptable, and we need to look for feasible alternates for low carbon economy & support mandates of Kyoto protocolWhat are we missing in our existing practices?

To sustain economic growth, potential alternates of low carbon economy must be adoptedTwo major possible technologiesAlgae-based Capture TechnologyGeological Sequestration TechnologySustainableSocial problems arisesSafeUntested on large scaleNo need to transport CO2Need to transport CO2 to sequestration siteGenerates biomassNo additional revenueCoupled with wastewater treatmentCoupled with oil recovery$ = carbon credit + nutrient credit + biomass$ = carbon credit

Major issues to drive policy decisions for Algal technology

Climate change mandateVast land use change in India. (Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change IPCC reported land use change is one of the major contributor to carbon emission, i.e. equivalent to 25% of all the fossil fuel and cement plants emission combined)

3. India is rightly place for the technology to evolve Optimum Climate and more than 340 days of sunshineLarge number of coal based power plants being builtCarbon dioxide is a very useful resource for algae industry & should not be wastedAlgal biomass will initiate a new resource for biorefinery value chain

ConceptThe amount of CO2 sequestered in-Tons/ Acre/Year

Calculation for Per Acre:

Carbon Content Assumed in Biomass is ~ 50 % ( Reference : Knowledge Reference, National Forest Assessments, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations,

Carbon to Amount CO2

1 mole of carbon give 1 mol of CO2Molecular wt of C = 12 & CO2 is 44So Molar ratio = 44/12 = 3.6 ( 1 kg of carbon is equivalent to 3.6 kg of CO2)

Key PlayersEnd Use of AlgaeSeambioticFood additives, Fish feed and biofuelsMBDAlgae oilLinc EnergyBiodiesel, Fertilizers and power.Trident Exploration ElectricityRWE energy Biogas plantGlenturret Whisky distillery Animal feed for cattle and Shellfish farms

NALCO, IndiaBiorefinery Value ChainBiomass is a Bonus (in addition to capture)!

Construction of Ponds :

Flugas Supply line from Duct of Unit 7 and 8

Heat exchanger, scrubber & cooling tower erected Ducts from Unit 7 & 8

Laboratory set-up of Algal cultivation bioreactor system with online CO2 and O2 monitoring & Control (SCADA)

NTUTime - Days

Recovered Algal Biomass Potential Plants can tolerate less CO2 ( ~ 450 PPM)

Plants growth has been increased by three times by enhancing CO2 conc. to about 450 ppm

Algae can tolerate higher CO2 Conc (> 20 % CO2 OR 200,000 ppm)

Algae growth rate can be enhanced upto 10 20 times with enhanced CO2 in lab scale

Characterization of the Product

Thermal characterization of algae biomass and algae oil

Process / Technology FlowNALCO CPPFlue Gas@ 135 C12 15 % CO2Flue gas is processed to make Suitable for Sequestration Application

Bacterial Mass Cultivation System Operation aided with flue gasBiomass Recovery System & Quantification Biomass Value Chain and Utilization Technologies

ApplicationsBiorefineryA biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refineries, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum..

Process Conclusion

Algae A Promising & Future Biomass from Flue gas:Each gram of algae will capture 1.8 gm of CO2. Cogeneration system of 16M m3 biogas capacity = ~ 260 tons of algae. Biogas generation efficiency = 0.26 0.34 m3 /KG volatile solids (VS) added. Algae biomass @ 89 % VS content potentially can produce ~ 115,000 m3 biogas for generating at least 55,000 KW4 of carbon negative electrical energy each cycle. With an algal cultivation system the equivalent forest land requirement can be reduces by a factor of 10, as more than 10 times biomass can be generate, and depending on the end us, the carbon sequestration may be valued further.

Land availability near power plant

Retrofitting algae systems in existing power plants

Economic viability demonstration in India

Industrial perception

Encouraging Socio Economic and Awareness of CCS with microalgae

Challenges yet to be addressed

Overview of regional CCUS educational and outreach effortsThe ministry of 'environment and forests' (Govt. of India) is now ministry of 'environment, forests and climate change',Inclusive National Education PolicyInclusive Regional education policy Local Environmental Associations and NGO

Thank youwww.ranjanpradhan.comwww.indocantechnologysolutions .com