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CCNAv5.0: Tech Updates & IPv6 (Introduction to Chapter Routing Protocols 1 Routing Concepts 2 Static Routing 3 Routing Dynamically 4 EIGRP 4.1 Characteristics of EIGRP 4.2 Operation

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Text of CCNAv5.0: Tech Updates & IPv6 (Introduction to Chapter Routing Protocols 1 Routing Concepts 2...

  • CCNAv5.0: Tech Updates & IPv6 (Introduction to Networks)

    Fernando Velez Varela

    LMC ASC/ITC/CA PUJ Cali

    Julio de 2013

  • © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2

    Agenda

    IPv6 in Introduction to Networks

  • Cisco Confidential © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 3

  • © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4

    Chapter Routing Protocols

    1 Routing Concepts

    2 Static Routing

    3 Routing Dynamically

    4 EIGRP

    4.1 Characteristics of EIGRP

    4.2 Operation of EIGRP

    4.3 Configuring EIGRP for IPv4

    4.4 Configuring EIGRP for IPv6

    5 Advanced EIGRP Configurations

    6 Single-Area OSPF

    6.1 Characteristics and Operation of OSPF

    6.2 Configuring Single-area OSPFv2 for IPv4

    6.3 Configuring Single-area OSPFv3 for IPv6

    7 Adjust and Troubleshoot Singles-Area OSPF

    8 Multi-Area OSPF

    Integrate IPv6 content with IPv4

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    • Monday, 31st January, 2011, IANA allocated 2 IPv4 blocks to APNIC, the RIR-ul for Asia Pacific

    • This event brought IANA to the decission of allocating the rest of the 5 spaces to each of the 5 RIRs

    • So, practically,

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    • 128 bits

    Right now we are making /64 allocations to end-users (small alarm signal)

    • Are we getting rid of NAT?

    Unfortunately, no

    Over time NAT has imposed itself as a false sense of security and comfort in enterprises – it is being requested to exist in the industry

    • Autoconfiguration

    The posibility of a host to completely autoconfigure a 128 bit IPv6 global address to communicate withing its subnet

    Great security risks

    You lose the possibility of clear, local accounting in a network

    (omg! IPsec end-to-end!)

  • Cisco Confidential © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 7

  • © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8

  • © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9

    • The RIRs get /12

    • The ISPs get /32

    • Organisations get /48 from the ISP

    • The next 16 bits can be subnetted to obtain a maximum of 2^16 different subnets

    • The last 64 bits are used for the host portion

    Global routing prefix Subnet Interface ID

    64 bits

    min 16 bits max 48 bits

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    • Is an address that starts with FEB7 a link-local address? R: Yes, just the first 10 bits need to be the same

    Adresă Rol

    Global unicast 2000::/3 Unicast

    Unique local FD00::/8 Private IP space

    Link-local FE80::/10 Communication in the same

    segment

    Multicast FF00::/8 Transmiting to a group

    Anycast It can be anything from

    the unicast space

    Using the same address to identify multiple hosts in the

    Internet

    Broadcast ??? None. The Internet hates

    broadcasts.

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    • An IPv6 address is 128 bits long

    • An IPv6 address is expressed in hexadecimal (1…9AB..F)

    • How is an IPv6 address going to look?

    2023:0000:34FA:D56E:9892:09C1:4322:AA43

    2023

    How many bits?

    = 16 (group)

    :

    Delimiter

    0000:34FA:D56E:9892:09C1:4322:AA43

    A bit long 

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    • Successive fields of 0’s can be represented as “::”, but only once in an address

    • The leading zeros from the beginning of a hexa group can be omitted.

    • A group of four 0s can be written as one single hexa-digit of 0

    • Example:

    2023:0000:34FA:0000:0000:09C1:4322:AA43

    → 2023:0000:34FA::09C1:4322:AA43 Correct

    → 2023:0:34FA::9C1:4322:AA43 Correct

    → 2023::34FA:0:0:9C1:4322:AA43 Correct

    → 2023::34FA::9C1:4322:AA43 Incorrect

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    IPv6 Address Types

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    Prefix Hex Value Use

    0000 to 00FF •Unspecified

    •Loopback

    •IPv4-compatible

    0100 to 01FF Unassigned (0.38 % of IPv6 space)

    0200 to 03FF NSAP Network Service AP)

    0400 to 1FFF Unassigned (~11% of IPv6 space)

    2000 to 3FFF Aggregatable global unicast

    (12.5%)

    4000 to FE7F (Huge) Unassigned (~75% of IPv6 space)

    FE80 to FEBF Link-local

    FC00 to FCFF Unique-local

    FF00 to FFFF Multicast

    Note: IPv6 Internet uses 2001::/3 which is < 2% of IPv6 address space

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    IPv6 Address Description

    ::/0

    • All networks and used when specifying a default static

    route.

    • It is equivalent to the IPv4 quad-zero (0.0.0.0)

    ::/128 • Unspecified address and is initially assigned to a host

    when it first resolves its local link address

    ::1/128 • Loopback address of local host

    • Equivalent to 127.0.0.1 in IPv4

    FE80::/10

    • Link-local unicast address

    • Similar to the Windows autoconfiguration IP address of

    169.254.x.x

    FF00::/8 • Multicast addresses

    All other addresses • Global unicast address

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    • Equivalent to 127.0.0.1 in IPv4

    • An address used when a host “talks to itself”

    Network Services

    • The loopback address in IPv6 is:

    0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1/128

    OR?

    ::1/128

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    IPv6 Unicast

    Address Assignment

    Link-local (FE80::/10)

    Address Assignment

    Static

    IPv6 Address

    Dynamic

    Automatically created (EUI-64 format) if a global unicast IPv6

    address is configured

    Global Routable

    Address Assignment

    Static

    IPv6 Address

    IPv6 Unnumbered

    Dynamic

    Stateless Autoconfiguration

    DHCPv6

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    • Link-local addresses play a crucial role in the operation of IPv6.

    • They are dynamically created using a link-local prefix of FE80::/10 and a 64-bit interface identifier.

    128 bits

    FE80 1111 1110 1000 0000 0000 0000 ... 0000 0000 0000

    Interface ID

    /10

    FE80::/10

    /64

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    R2# ping FE80::202:16FF:FEEB:3D01

    Output Interface: serial0/0/0

    Type escape sequence to abort.

    Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::202:16FF:FEEB:3D01, timeout is 2

    seconds:

    !!!!!

    Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 31/34/47 ms

    • When pinging another device using a link-local address, the outgoing interface must be specified.

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    R1# show ipv6 interface loopback 100

    Loopback100 is up, line protocol is up

    IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::222:55FF:FE18:7DE8

    No Virtual link-local address(es):

    Global unicast address(es):

    2001:8:85A3:4290:222:55FF:FE18:7DE8, subnet is 2001:8:85A3:4290::/64 [EUI]

    Joined group address(es):

    FF02::1

    FF02::2

    FF02::1:FF18:7DE8

    MTU is 1514 bytes

    ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds

    ICMP redirects are enabled

    ICMP unreachables are sent

    ND DAD is not supported

    ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds (using 31238)

    Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.

    R1#

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    • A global unicast address is an IPv6 address from the global public unicast prefix (2001::/16).

    • These addresses are routable on the global IPv6 Internet.

    • Global unicast addresses are aggregated upward through organizations and eventually to the ISPs.

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    • The global unicast address consists of:

    • A 48-bit global routing prefix

    • A 16-bit subnet ID

    • A 64-bit interface ID

    Global Routing Prefix Subnet

    ID Interface ID

    2001 0010

    0008 21B:D5FF:FE

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