Catalog Pereti Cortina

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    EXALCO

    CURTAIN WALLSWITH SUSPENDED GLASSED PANELS

    Patented

    SERIES : STET 2001

    ARCHITECTURAL INFORMATION

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    Curtain Walls with Suspended Glassed Panels are patented for Stefanos Tampakakis,Civil Engineer. The patent is protected in Greece and over the international market bythe following letters patents:

    Greece: Letters Patent N 1002646 / 18-03-1996Letters Patent N 1002827 / 16-10-1996

    Europe: Letters Patent N 0938616 / 06-02-2002 USA : Letters Patent N 6269600B1 J apan : Letters Patent N 518199 / 1998

    EXALCO S.A. has assumed exclusive rights for the production and exploitation of thepatent in Greece.

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    Characteristics of the Curtain Wallswith Suspended Glassed Panels

    1. Curtain walls with suspended glassed panels are characterized by the fact thatthe glass panels are fixed onto the structure of the curtain wall by suspensionexclusively from and all along the horizontal beams of such structure, aswell as by the fact that there are no continuous studs along the height ofthe curtain wall.

    2. At each storey there are two main horizontal beams parallel to each otherand continuous throughout the height of the structural elevation of the storey, oneat the level of the window sill (lower horizontal beam), from which fixed (dead)panels are suspended, and the other at the level of the lintel (upper horizontalbeam), from which windows are suspended. Among the said beams, the lowerhorizontal beam rests on the ends of short studs fixed onto the floor slab of eachstorey and standing up, while the upper horizontal beam rests on the ends ofequally short uprights fixed onto the roof slab of each storey and hanging down inthe form of minor cantilevers. In cases of continuous curtain walls overconsecutive storeys, the cantilevers are unified and horizontal beams aresupported by unified studs having the form of beams overhanging at both ends.

    3. Curtain walls with suspended glassed panels are characterized by the fact thatno studs exist between the horizontal beams of each storey and that thewindows of the storey are suspended over the free space between the twobeams by means of hooks hanging all along the section of the upper horizontalbeam and that of the upper side of the window frames.

    4. Curtain walls with suspended glassed panels are also characterized by the factthat the aluminum sections of the glassed panel frames carry special slots for

    supporting anodized aluminum blades, in order to ensure that the structuralsilicone is applied directly on pure untempered aluminum and achieve therequired firm, permanent and high-security bonding.

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    Major Benefitsof Curtain Walls with Suspended Glassed Panels

    1. Architectural libertyIn accordance with the main characteristics of curtain walls with suspendedglassed panels, the architectural grid of the faade is independent of thestructural grid of the curtain wall. As a result, the architect is free to choosethe faade grid he prefers without constraints imposed by the structure and thedimensions of the glass panels. By maintaining only two lines of the faade gridin each storey, those of the window sill and lintel, he is free to vary thedimensions of the grid, cut through the lines and apply other materials on thesame grid, in addition to glass: marble, granite, aluminum sheets etc. He mayalso opt for multi-level fabrications for the faade, without worrying aboutintroducing high-cost applications or about the form and strength of the load-bearing structure, which will be examined separately in the light of purelystructural criteria.

    2. Windows all along the front elevation of each storeyIn view of the absence of uprights over the area of the windows and of the freesuspension of windows throughout the length of the upper horizontal beam ofeach storey, it will be possible to introduce projected windows all along thefront elevation of the storey, without constraints concerning the windowwidth. This will result in a larger number of windows, ample natural ventilation,saving of energy and protection of the personnel against suffocation phenomenain case of fire or of failure of the air-conditioning.

    3. Seismic performanceIn view of the independence of the structure of each storey from that of the restof the storeys and also in view of the free suspension of the glass panels, theseismic strain of the glass curtain wall is substantially reduced, since it islimited to the strain corresponding to the slab of each storey supporting thestructure.

    4. Safety - ReliabilityThe specific form of the structure of the glass curtain wall entails a full structuralcapacity adequate to assume high strain conditions. At the same time, thephenomenon of thermal expansion is reduced and its impact, such as noise,warping etc., is eliminated. In addition, by suspending glass panels throughoutthe length of the horizontal beams, the load distribution becomes even, the strainimposed on aluminum sections and adhering materials is reduced, while thereliability and safety coefficient of the overall construction is increased.

    5. Fire protection, thermal/sound insulationThermal/sound insulation panels and fireproof slabs (cement boards, gypsumboards and other insulating materials) are provided to be fixed onto the structurebetween the slab and the horizontal beams of each storey, while glass panelsare in no contact whatsoever with the insulating materials. This creates anexternal thermal/sound barrier and a fire barrier between storeys, which

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    result in reducing the consumption of power, limiting noise pollution andpreventing fire expansion from one storey to another.

    6. Fully watertightThe system structure results in the flow and discharge of water being directedtowards the exterior in all cases, thus ensuring complete watertightness of the

    curtain wall.

    7. Combination of glassed panels with marble/granite slabs, aluminum sheetsetc.

    The various faade cover materials are combined on the same structure withspecial aluminum sections in each case.

    8. Fixing auxiliary internal fabrications and external features of the buildingonto the horizontal beams and studs of the structureIn view of the structure and strength of the horizontal beams, it is possible for thelatter to support suspended ceilings, thermal/sound insulation panels, covers ofair-conditioning, louvers, fixed items of furniture etc. Furthermore, it is possible to

    fix external louvers and other items onto the structure studs.

    9. Possibility to replace or change a part or all of the glassed panels from theinterior of the buildingIn view of the independence of the faade components from the structure of thecurtain wall, it is possible to replace a part or the entire number of suchcomponents without any alteration to the structure. This possibility appliesparticularly to the case of renewal or of variation of the architectural faade of thebuilding.

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    STRUCTURE OF THE CURTAIN WALL

    GeneralIn accordance with the principal characteristics of curtain walls with suspended glassedpanels, series STET 2001, the structure of the curtain wall is distinguished from the

    glassed panels in the same sense as the loadbearing structure of a building isdistinguished from its architectural faade and the responsibilities of a Civil Engineer aredistinguished from those of an Architect.

    LOADBEARING STRUCTURE

    StudsThey constitute the main components of the structure. According to the maincharacteristics, studs are not continuous in height: they are not supported betweenconsecutive slabs as simply supported or continuous beams, but they depend on thestorey slab to which they correspond and onto which they are firmly fixed. As a result,

    their height is limited to the distance between the slab and the window sill and extendsdownwards up to the lintel of the windows of the underlying storey, if the curtain wall iscontinued.

    The discontinuity of the studs in height, their limited height and their dependenceon the storey slab to which they belong ensure the great benefits mentioned hereabove:seismic performance, assumption of sizeable wind pressure loads, possibility of multi-level and polygonic faades etc.

    The spacing between studs is defined by Analysis Diagrams.

    Horizontal BeamsHorizontal beams constitute the structure components from which glass panels and therest of the faade items are suspended. They rest on studs ends and determine the

    positions of window sills and lintels. The span between the supports of a horizontalbeam, namely the space between studs, is also defined by Analysis Diagrams. If thedistance between the building columns is compatible to the strength of horizontal beams,the latter may rest directly on such columns, in which case studs are eliminated.

    Stud SupportsAt all times, studs are fixed onto the building structure by means of steel fixing basescapable of assuming and of transferring all perpendicular and horizontal static anddynamic loads with absolute safety.

    The fabrication and size of the steel fixing bases depend on the form and type ofthe loadbearing structure of the building, the space left between the curtain wall and thebuilding structure and the loads resulting from analytical calculations.

    ARCHITECTURAL FAADEAs already mentioned, glassed panels are suspendedall along the horizontal beams byway of matching hooks provided on the sections of the horizontal beams and on theframes of the glassed panels respectively.

    More specifically, with regard to windows, hooks are shaped in a way ensuringsimple, safe and easy opening and turning. On the other hand, and due to the

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    continuous suspension of glassed panels from horizontal beams and to the evendistribution of pressures, options regarding the width of the windows are unlimited.As regards curtain walls of type Structural Glazing, plateglass is glued onto the panelframe by means of anodized aluminum blades, in order to ensure that the structuralsilicone is applied directly on pure untempered aluminum and achieve the required firm,permanent and high-security bonding.

    Furthermore, structural silicone is applied directly on the external plateglass, to ensurethe greatest possible safety and the best possible thermal discontinuity.

    MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

    AluminiumThe alloy used for the extrusion of the profiles is the EN AW-6060 alloy, according to theEN 573-3:2003 standard.

    The dimension tolerances are according to the EN 12020.01 and 12020.02 standards.

    PolyamideThe thermal break profiles embed bars of poyamid 6.6 with 25% glassfibre.

    GasketsAll the gaskets are Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) gaskets.

    CoatingThe powder-coated profiles comply with the QUALIOCAT specifications of the EuropeanAluminium Association.

    AnodisingThe anodized profiles comply with the QUALANOD specifications of the European

    Aluminium Association.

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