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<ul><li><p>7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: SRI LANKA WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY, Sri Lanka</p><p> 1/12</p><p>Equator Initiative Case StudiesLocal sustainable development solutions for people, nature, and resilient communities</p><p>Sri Lanka</p><p>SRI LANKA WILDLIFECONSERVATION SOCIETY</p><p>Empowered live</p><p>Resilient nation</p><p>Empowered live</p><p>Resilient nation</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: SRI LANKA WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY, Sri Lanka</p><p> 2/12</p><p>UNDP EQUATOR INITIATIVE CASE STUDY SERIES</p><p>Local and indigenous communities across the world are advancing innovative sustainable development solutions that wo</p><p>or people and or nature. Few publications or case studies tell the ull story o how such initiatives evolve, the breadth</p><p>their impacts, or how they change over time. Fewer still have undertaken to tell these stories with community practition</p><p>themselves guiding the narrative.</p><p>To mark its 10-year anniversary, the Equator Initiative aims to ll this gap. The ollowing case study is one in a growing ser</p><p>that details the work o Equator Prize winners vetted and peer-reviewed best practices in community-based environmenconservation and sustainable livelihoods. These cases are intended to inspire the policy dialogue needed to take local succ</p><p>to scale, to improve the global knowledge base on local environment and development solutions, and to serve as models </p><p>replication. Case studies are best viewed and understood with reerence to The Power o Local Action: Lessons rom 10 Years</p><p>the Equator Prize, a compendium o lessons learned and policy guidance that draws rom the case material.</p><p>Click on the map to visit the Equator Initiatives searchable case study database.</p><p>EditorsEditor-in-Chie: Joseph Corcoran</p><p>Managing Editor: Oliver HughesContributing Editors: Dearbhla Keegan, Matthew Konsa, Erin Lewis, Whitney Wilding</p><p>Contributing WritersEdayatu Abieodun Lamptey, Erin Atwell, Toni Blackman, Jonathan Clay, Joseph Corcoran, Larissa Currado, Sarah Gordon, Oliver Hughe</p><p>Wen-Juan Jiang, Sonal Kanabar, Dearbhla Keegan, Matthew Konsa, Rachael Lader, Patrick Lee, Erin Lewis, Jona Liebl, Mengning Ma,</p><p>Mary McGraw, Gabriele Orlandi, Juliana Quaresma, Peter Schecter, Martin Sommerschuh, Whitney Wilding, Luna Wu</p><p>DesignOliver Hughes, Dearbhla Keegan, Matthew Konsa, Amy Korngiebel, Kimberly Koserowski, Erin Lewis, John Mulqueen, Lorena de la Pa</p><p>Brandon Payne, Mariajos Satizbal G.</p><p>AcknowledgementsThe Equator Initiative acknowledges with gratitude the Sri Lanka Wildlie Conservation Society, and in particular the guidance and inp</p><p>o Ravi Correa. All photo credits courtesy o Sri Lanka Wildlie Conservation Society. Maps courtesy o CIA World Factbook and Wikiped</p><p>Suggested CitationUnited Nations Development Programme. 2012. Sri Lanka Wildlie Conservation Society, Sri Lanka. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. N</p><p>York, NY.</p>;view=casestudysearch&amp;Itemid=858</li><li><p>7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: SRI LANKA WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY, Sri Lanka</p><p> 3/12</p><p>PROJECT SUMMARYSri Lanka Wildlie Conservation Society works to enablecommunities across the country to balance ecosystemprotection and economic development by exploring waysto resolve human-elephant conict through communitydevelopment, capacity building, and research.</p><p>Recognizing that one o the biggest threats to elephants inSri Lanka is conict with humans, oten through crop raiding,and that human settlements are increasingly encroachingurther into elephant habitat, the initiative has workedwith rural communities to develop a range o innovative</p><p>mitigation measures. These include the use o solar-powered electrical ences, adjustments in crop cultivationtimerames, and the introduction o alternative crops.The project has also addressed a range o interconnectedsocioeconomic issues such as sustainable land use, capacitybuilding, and gender equality by promoting agroorestryand home garden development, and by extending accessto new technologies and microcredit.</p><p>KEY FACTS</p><p>EQUATOR PRIZE WINNER: 2008</p><p>FOUNDED: 1997</p><p>LOCATION: Dehiwala, Sri Lanka</p><p>BENEFICIARIES: 16,500 villagers in three provinces</p><p>BIODIVERSITY: Asian elephant</p><p>3</p><p>SRI LANKA WILDLIFE CONSERVATIONSOCIETYSri Lanka</p><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS</p><p>Background and Context 4</p><p>Key Activities and Innovations 6</p><p>Biodiversity Impacts 8</p><p>Socioeconomic Impacts 8</p><p>Policy Impacts 9</p><p>Sustainability 10</p><p>Replication 10</p><p>Partners 10</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: SRI LANKA WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY, Sri Lanka</p><p> 4/12</p><p>4</p><p>Despite being one o the smallest countries in Asia, Sri Lanka supports</p><p>he largest biodiversity per unit o area on the continent. Over the</p><p>ast three decades, the pressures o a rapidly expanding population</p><p>ave resulted in the countrys globally signicant biodiversity being</p><p>hreatened by deorestation, land degradation and the unregulated</p><p>xploitation o natural resources. Over 80 per cent o the countrys</p><p>atural orest cover has been degraded due to agriculture, irrigation,</p><p>ndustrialization, urbanization and logging. Over 22 mammal</p><p>pecies, 14 bird species and 280 species o higher plants in Sri Lanka</p><p>re currently classied as threatened.</p><p>ri Lanka Wildlie Conservation Society (SLWCS) has been proactive</p><p>n launching initiatives to prevent the loss o biodiversity, recognizinghe role that healthy ecosystems play in sustaining essential</p><p>cological services such as pollination, seed dispersal and natural</p><p>est control. SLWCS is committed to the development o innovative</p><p>trategies to address human-elephant conicts (HEC), one o the</p><p>most pressing environmental and socioeconomic concerns in rural</p><p>ri Lanka. Over the past 14 years, SLWCS has established several</p><p>andmark projects to address HEC that have been internationally</p><p>ecognized and have been emulated in other Asian elephant range</p><p>ountries.</p><p>A agship species</p><p>he Asian elephant (elephas maximus) is one o the most endangeredmega-herbivores on the planet and to conserve viable populations</p><p> elephants in the wild is an enormous challenge. Their conservation</p><p>s o the utmost importance, as conservation o this agship species</p><p>esults in the protection o several other mammal, bird and reptile</p><p>pecies in the area. Over the last our decades, the Asian elephant</p><p>opulation has declined dramatically, with habitat loss and conict</p><p>with humans posing the biggest threats to its survival. As human</p><p>ettlements encroach urther and urther into elephant habitat,</p><p>ncidences o crop raiding increase and lead to the destruction o</p><p>rops, homes and livelihoods.</p><p>Human-elephant conict</p><p>Even though the people o Sri Lanka and the elephant share a cul</p><p>bond that is over 5,000 years old, and the elephant is a living sy</p><p>o Sri Lankan culture, human-elephant conicts have becom</p><p>critical conservation problem in wildlie management, i not</p><p>o the most pressing environmental and socioeconomic conc</p><p>in Sri Lanka. Ever year, between 150 and 200 elephants are kille</p><p>retaliation by armers or their destruction o crops, while betw</p><p>60 and 80 people on average are killed annually by elephants</p><p>crisis escalates every year and HECs are now common in eig</p><p>Sri Lankas nine Administrative Provinces, directly and indir</p><p>aecting over three million people.</p><p>According to data gathered by the Elephant Conservation Un</p><p>the Department o Wildlie Conservation (DWC), rom 1991 to 2</p><p>1,138 people were killed by elephants and some 2,844 eleph</p><p>were killed by armers. From 2004 to 2007 a total o 3,103 ho</p><p>were destroyed by elephants.</p><p>In addition to the above losses, the damages caused by eleph</p><p>to paddy elds, home gardens, maize, cereal crops and coc</p><p>plantations have been estimated at USD 10 million annua</p><p>huge cost or subsistence armers to bear. Today, human-elep</p><p>conicts dene the relationship between people and eleph</p><p>in Sri Lanka. A HEC survey conducted in 1998 showed that ohouseholds in one village, 64 per cent had experienced cro</p><p>property damage due to elephant incursions and each house</p><p>spent roughly USD 84 per annum on the purchase o HEC mitig</p><p>supplies kerosene oil, recrackers, ashlight batteries and bul</p><p>protect their crops and homes. This represents approximately t</p><p>per cent o the mean annual income.</p><p>Roughly ve square kilometers o land is needed to suppo</p><p>elephant without upsetting the natural balance that exists betw</p><p>the elephant and the dry zone habitats in which most wi</p><p>Background and Context</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: SRI LANKA WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY, Sri Lanka</p><p> 5/12</p><p>55</p><p>esides. The current population o about 3,500 elephants thereore</p><p>equires roughly 17,500 km2 or 27 per cent o the total land areaor its exclusive use. The system o protected areas in Sri Lanka,</p><p>owever, covers only 12.5 per cent o the land area (or 8,200 km2).</p><p>hus, national parks and nature reserves alone cannot ensure the</p><p>ong-term survival o the elephant. I elephants are to survive outside</p><p>rotected areas in signicant numbers, it is essential that coexistence</p><p>etween elephants and human communities be encouraged.</p><p>Empowering communities</p><p>LWCSs vision is to help protect and conserve Sri Lankas diminishing</p><p>iodiversity and to make the local and international community</p><p>ware o ongoing threats to it. The organization strives to enable</p><p>ommunities to balance ecosystem protection and economicevelopment by pioneering a model or sustainable conservation,</p><p>with a particular ocus on mitigating HEC. The organizations</p><p>hilosophy is to workwith rather than orcommunities, so that local</p><p>ommunities participate in as well as benet rom conservation and</p><p>esearch eorts to save threatened ecosystems, endangered wildlie</p><p>nd their habitats.</p><p>LWCSs strategy or sustainable conservation begins with a bottom-</p><p>p process o discussions with aected communities to design and</p><p>evelop the most eective human-elephant conict mitigation</p><p>management solutions through a participatory process integr</p><p>with long-term monitoring and evaluation. Communitiesprovided with the necessary capacity building to orm comm</p><p>organizations that eventually take control o the project. Th</p><p>made possible by SLWCSs inclusive model. To ensure sustainab</p><p>community organizations are encouraged to become indepen</p><p>with the SLWCS providing expert guidance and assistance as nee</p><p>Fig. 1: Human and elephants deaths in Sri Lanka due to HEC between 1991 and 2010</p><p>ource: Department o Wildlie Conservation, Elephant Conservation Unit</p><p>0</p><p>50</p><p>100</p><p>150</p><p>200</p><p>250</p><p>1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010</p><p>Elephant Deaths Human Deaths</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: SRI LANKA WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY, Sri Lanka</p><p> 6/12</p><p>6</p><p>Key Activities and Innovations</p><p>With managed coexistence between elephants and localommunities the only way to ensure both wildlie conservation and</p><p>he sustainable development o communities, SLWCS addresses</p><p>uman-elephant conict via a multi-aceted approach. First,</p><p>mplementing conict prevention measures that directly reduce</p><p>he number o occurring incidents and, second, investigating root</p><p>auses o conicts and tackling them with tailored, long-term, case-</p><p>pecic strategies.</p><p>A direct solution</p><p>or short-term direct conict prevention, SLWCS came up with an</p><p>mproved encing strategy that allows the highest possible reedom</p><p>o elephant movement, while also guaranteeing the highestpossible security o local people and their arms. With regard to long-</p><p>erm mitigation strategies, the initiative stresses the importance</p><p>o increasing community knowledge o the orest ecosystem</p><p>particularly the temporal and spatial distribution o wild elephant</p><p>erds and their behavior), putting in place appropriate strategies to</p><p>onserve elephant habitat, introducing more ecologically riendly</p><p>gricultural practices, and providing villagers with livelihood options</p><p>hat are compatible with human-elephant coexistence.</p><p>One o the most eective tools averting human-elephant conict is to</p><p>ence out crop raiding elephants by installing solar powered electric</p><p>ences either along elephant or human ecological boundaries.</p><p>LWCS has provided over 50 kilometers o solar-powered electricences so ar, which help to protect the dwellings and elds o armers</p><p>rom elephant incursions and also reduce the incidence o violent</p><p>ncounters between humans and elephants. Since the beginning</p><p>o the project in 1997, SLWCS has erected additional electric ences</p><p>n the North, Central, and Eastern Provinces o Sri Lanka. The rst</p><p>ommunity-based solar powered electric ence was erected in the</p><p>illage o Gamburu-Oya/Pussellayaya in Wasgamuwa in 1998.</p><p>or the rst time in Sri Lanka, the project ully integrated community</p><p>participation into a process o encing elephants out rom certain</p><p>areas (human settlements, elds, etc.) rather than encing theinto protected areas. This approach strives to give elephants m</p><p>room outside o national parks, an important step given that </p><p>70 per cent o Sri Lankas elephant population live outside nat</p><p>parks. Based on the initial success o this eort, several more ele</p><p>ences were installed to establish a buer o electric-enced villa</p><p>allowing more space or elephants to roam and reducing</p><p>incidence o elephants coming into conict with humans.</p><p>A multi-aceted approach</p><p>Constructing ences does not automatically resolve all issue</p><p>address all actors that continue to drive elephant populations d</p><p>or keep rural subsistence armers marginalized. There are mlevels to this problem, and i eorts are to have maximum ee</p><p>range o approaches is needed. One strategy is the incorpora</p><p>o landscape-level strategies that support armers in building</p><p>capacity to cultivate alternative crops around their lands, as a b</p><p>to deter elephants rom coming into villages. It is important to </p><p>that crops play a major role in HEC, as most o the crops that ar</p><p>cultivate, such as rice, corn, banana, pumpkins, cucumber, ghe</p><p>cereals, pulses and sugarcane, are very attractive and highly pala</p><p>to elephants. Identiying crops that are not attractive to eleph</p><p>and yet bring armers good revenue, is one o the major goals</p><p>SLWCS has set itsel in its alternative crop project. This project</p><p>launched as a pilot eort to explore how armers that suer req</p><p>crop and property damages rom elephants can be supportemitigate those risks through the cultivation o alternative c</p><p>such as chili, bitter gourd or citrus, which deter elephants inste</p><p>attracting them.</p><p>Innovative techniques</p><p>Beyond these direct conict prevention measures, a de</p><p>understanding o elephant behavior, habitat usage, abunda</p><p>movement and distribution are important or the manageme</p><p>the elephant population. Some methods to gather this inorma</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: SRI LANKA WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY, Sri Lanka</p><p> 7/12</p><p>7</p><p>uch as radio telemetry and GPS trackin...</p></li></ul>