Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare, inherited skeletal disorder characterized by abnormalities of type 1 collagen. Malignancyis rarely reported in patients with OI and it was suggested that this disease can protect against cancer. Here, we report a41-year-old woman with symptoms of achalasia where repeated treatment of pneumatic dilation and stent replacement wasunsuccessful; therefore, surgery was performed. Pathology showed gastric adenocarcinoma unexpectedly. Chemotherapywas givenafter assessing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) enzyme activity, which can be deficient in OI patients. This is the firstreport of gastric cancer mimicking achalasia in a patient with OI.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group ofdisorders, predominantly characterized by osteopenia withliability to fracture. The disorder is frequently associatedwith blue sclera, dental abnormalities, progressive hearingloss, and a positive family history . Severity of the diseaseis very variable with one type which is lethal prenatally.The other type with mild features makes distinguishabilityof affected individuals harder from normal individuals. Theoverall prevalence of OI is 1-2 per 20,000 births . Cancer isnot frequently seen in OI patients, and in particular epithelialcancers are rarely reported in OI patients . We reportthe first patient with OI, presented as pseudoachalasia anddiagnosed as gastric cancer.
2. Case Report
A 41-year-old woman with a short stature and blue sclera(Figure 1) was admitted to our hospital 2 years ago, withdifficulty in swallowing and weight loss. We learned thatshe had a family history of OI and had the diagnosis ofOI when she was a child. The chest radiograph showeda widened mediastinum (Figure 2) and computer tomog-raphy showed a widened esophagus (Figure 3). There wasno detectable lesion by endoscopy. Esophagogram showed
a dilated esophagus with an air-fluid level, which can beseen in achalasia. Confirmation was made by esophagealmanometry which showed incomplete relaxation of the loweresophageal sphincter. Repeated treatment of pneumatic dila-tion and stent replacement was unsuccessful. Biopsy whichwas made from distal esophagus was reported as esophagitis.Due to the continuation of symptoms, esophagectomy andproximal gastrectomy were performed and pathology reportshowed adenocarcinoma, grade 2, and tumor infiltrated toserosa (T3N1M0). Because the tumor was positive in theproximal surgical margin, second surgery was performed.The anatomy of abdomen was not suitable for radiationtherapy. Since the patient was in high risk group, docetaxel +5-fluorouracil + folinic acid treatment in the adjuvant settingfor 6 cycles was given. No significant adverse effect relatedto the chemotherapy was seen. In the literature, DPD enzymedeficiency and related toxicity secondary to 5-FUare reportedfor OI patients; therefore, we studied DPD enzyme activitybefore administration of 5-FU and found no lack of DPDenzyme activity.The patient completed her therapy 6 monthsago and is still in remission without any symptoms.
OI is a rare disorder, in which a mutation of COL1A1 andCOL1A2 genes that encode the procollagen chains of type
Hindawi Publishing CorporationCase Reports in Gastrointestinal MedicineVolume 2015, Article ID 685459, 2 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/685459
2 Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Figure 1: Blue sclera.
Figure 2: Widened mediastinum with severe scoliosis.
Figure 3: Widened esophagus.
I collagen takes place. These mutations can have profoundeffect on extracellular matrix and give rise to increasedbone fragility and low bone mass . Type of mutationdetermines the severity of the disease. It may be sufficientto classify patients simply as mild (type I), lethal (type II),and moderately severe (type III), ranging from intrauterinefractures to very mild forms without any fracture and hardto distinguish from a healthy person . Diagnosis of thedisease can be done clinically for most patients. Short stature,blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, hearing impairment,and bone fractures are the most common characteristics ofthe disease.
Concurrent cancer is rarely seen in OI patients and it wassuggested by Rosenstock et al. that these patients have cancerprotection, but we have no evidence and such mechanism isnot known. Osteosarcoma is the most reported malignancyin OI patients [4, 5]. It is suggested that it can be due tocumulative radiation because these patients have numerousdiagnostic radiographs of fractured bones. Metal implantsused for fractured bones and repeated trauma can also bethe etiologic factor for osteosarcoma in OI patients. Amongepithelial tumors, reported malignancies are breast [6, 7],ovarian , colon , and gastric cancers .
Treatment decision should be done carefully for thesepatients due to the severe 5-fluorouracil (FU) toxicityreported in OI patients . 5-FU is the mainstay ofchemotherapy in gastric cancer; therefore, we studiedDPYP∗2A before starting the therapy and found no dysfunc-tion of the DPD enzyme. Our patient completed the therapywithout any significant adverse effect.
Achalasia is themost commonprimary esophagealmotordisorder and etiology is unknown. It is characterized by thedegeneration of Auerbach’s plexus; however, changes mayalso occur in the vagus nerve and the swallowing center.It is characterized with painless dysphagia and weight loss.Malignancy should be kept in mind if weight loss exceeds10% of the body weight. Pseudoachalasia is a disorder thatmimics clinical, radiographic, and manometric findings ofachalasia as a result of another underlying disorder likeadenocarcinoma of the cardia. This is the first report ofconcurrent OI, pseudoachalasia, and gastric cancer.
Because malignancy is rarely reported but can be seen inOI patients, one should be careful when evaluating symptomsof patients withOI. Also, it is important to evaluate symptomsmimicking achalasia, which can be seen in adenocarcinomaof cardia.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests forpublishing this case.
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