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LITERATURE REVIEW for CAPTIVATE: LOCAL PARTICIPATION FOR ALL A project of WA Local Government Association WA Disabled Sports Association The Centre for Cerebral Palsy Recreation & Sport Network Funded by Disability Services Commission Department of Sport and Recreation Richard Lockwood Anne Lockwood WA Disabled Sports Association [email protected] Ph/Fax 08 9336 3277 Perth, Western Australia February 2007

Captivate Literature Review (Id 3760)

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LITERATURE REVIEWfor CAPTIVATE: LOCAL PARTICIPATION FOR ALL A project of WA Local Government Association WA Disabled Sports Association The Centre for Cerebral Palsy Recreation & Sport Network

Funded by Disability Services Commission Department of Sport and RecreationRichard Lockwood Anne Lockwood WA Disabled Sports Association [email protected] Ph/Fax 08 9336 3277 Perth, Western Australia February 2007

SUMMARY

Disability is a fact of life for many Australians who live alone, in group homes, or with family and friends in the community. The rate of impairment is generally steady, but Australia has an aging population, and with aging comes the increased likelihood of impairment. How we view impairment and disability has changed dramatically in recent years, but communities in general have been slow to realise that, although the impairment a person has is a reality, the disablement is caused by environmental and social barriers which have been put in place by aging infrastructure, poor planning and negative social attitudes. This is changing, with legislation, advertising campaigns, and community-focused planning making inclusion in community life a reality. Work and play are important aspects of community life, and people with disabilities are increasingly pushing to be part of these worlds. The evidence presented in this literature review is that physical activity is a positive part of all our lives, for giving us vitality, creating networks and preventing many chronic diseases that are attributable to inactivity and poor diets. For people with disabilities there is the added complication of these secondary conditions that further exacerbate their impairments. Making community sport and recreation more inclusive for people with disabilities, their families and carers is an interesting challenge for local governments and their service partners. The evidence is that it needs a wholeof-local-government commitment in principle, and then appropriate strategic planning and actions. This will invariably involve activities such as community and organisation assessments, access audits, staff training, promotion of physical activity opportunities, and various partnerships to resolve areas such as resourcing, knowledge sharing, and provision of support. Each local government is a unique entity with specific environmental and organisational characteristics that will influence its approach to ensuring that its sport and recreation services and facilities are inclusive. Community development principles offer guidance to a general approach to inclusion that can then be tailored to ensure further local buy in and provision of appropriate opportunities for particular individuals and communities. Consistent with this approach, CAPTIVATE is specifically designed to support the training of sport and recreation service providers. The development of relevant policy and a range of specific tools may assist local government and partnering providers to meet the fundamental requirement that for successful inclusion, local government will be genuinely committed and will develop the capacity necessary to ensure inclusive community sport and recreation.

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CONTENTS

Section 1: Background, Introduction and Method Background Introduction Method

Page 1 1-2 2-3

Section 2: Disability and inclusion: Models and development

Defining disability Changing perspectives on disability Inclusion

4-5 5-10 10-11

Section 3: Local government and inclusive community sport and recreation

Local government Legislation and policy Disability and participation in sport and recreation

13-18 18-22 22-26

Section 4: Benefits of physical activity for people with physical disability

Physical activity and health benefits Physical activity and disability Physical activity and physical disability

28-29 29-31 31-38

Section 5: Barriers and enablers to participation/inclusion

Barriers and constraints Enablers and supports

39-46 46-47 48-59 60-64 65-80

Section 6: Inclusive practice: Community sport and recreation Section 7: Adult learning References

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SECTION 1 Background, Introduction and MethodBackgroundProject CAPTIVATE has drawn together three disability service organisations that work in various ways with local government to provide sport and recreation opportunities for people with disabilities: The Cerebral Palsy Association, Recreation and Sport Network, and The West Australian Disabled Sports Association. It is an umbrella project that aims to address the needs of these groups and those of the WA Local Government Association which were recently expressed in four separate project funding applications. The funding agencies, the Department of Sport and Recreation and the Disability Services Commission, had previously worked together to develop the WA Strategic Framework for Inclusive Sport and Recreation, and Captivate was seen as a natural extension of this Framework. Working with Local Government, other sport and recreation services providers, and people with disabilities, the project partners aim to develop resources for frontline staff delivering sport and recreation services provide training in the use of the resources, and develop relevant policy around inclusive sport and recreation. The Cerebral Palsy Association also wished to develop more specific resources and training with a focus on physical disability and targeted at fitness and aquatic staff in local government facilities. The first stage of project CAPTIVATE was structured to seek evidence to inform the development of the various resources and training. The method prescribed in relevant contracts was: Part I: a literature search Part II: a statewide environmental scan This report represents the completion of Part I, the literature review.

IntroductionThe contracted requirement for the literature review was described in general terms reflecting its intended use i.e. to underpin the project and the development of resources and policy and to provide a foundation for the development of evidence based inclusive sport and recreation policies and practices that can be directly linked to inclusive practice. Expectations about the nature of the content were further described to the researchers during consultation with each of the project partners and WALGA. The key areas indicated were: The development and current thinking about inclusion, particularly in relation to people with disabilities. Opportunities, capacity, and challenges to local government as an inclusive sport and recreation provider.

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Benefits of exercise for people with disabilities and a specific review on evidence relevant to physical disability. Barriers and enablers to participation and inclusion in community sport and recreation. Recent evidence of successful inclusive sport and recreation in a local government context and the basis for success. A brief review of current thinking on adult learning principles and practice. Given this range of expectations, relevant evidence has been sought across several major areas. Consequently, the sections represent a set of topics that contribute to the whole, rather than developing a specific theme. The primary audience for this document comprises the project partners and those developing the resources and training for the project. It is thus written for workers from the three different industries represented by the partners i.e. local government, sport and recreation, and disability. This document will be most valuable when considered in conjunction with the reported findings of CAPTIVATEs statewide Environmental Scan which summarise a significant amount of current West Australian input on the topics listed above. Together, the literature review and scan provide a perspective on current thinking and evidence in relation to inclusive sport and recreation.

MethodScope Reflecting the overall purpose of project CAPTIVATE, this document focuses on the inclusion of people with disabilities in sport and recreation that is provided/delivered by local government employees or purchased by them from relevant professionals. It includes activities offered through local government programs and services, and those undertaken in local government facilities and grounds. Terminology sport and recreation reflects the terminology used in CAPTIVATE documents and is used as a generic term to refer to physical activity and in some cases physical leisure activities where the reported literature uses this term. client, customer, consumer, patient are used to indicate the person with a disability who is seeking or using a service. The terms reflect those used in the reported literature. local government, councils interchangeable terms. people with disabilities disabled people interchangeable, and reflect those used in the reported literature. disability the notion of disability described in the Disability Discrimination Act (see Section 2). inclusion a broad notion that in practice extends from activities in open settings to those that are separate (see Section 2).

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Literature search process Relevant Australian and international literature was reviewed following systematic searches of library holdings through UWA Reid and Medical Libraries, and databases including MedLine, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), PsycINFO, PsychLIT, AusportMed, AUSTROM, ABS, AMED, and multiple searches using Google Scholar and Web of Science. Searches were conducted using the following key words and various combinations: sport recreation leisure physical activity exercise fitness disability impairment function handicap community health access supports enablers barriers constraints local government council municipality inclusion inclusive practice, inclusivity carers care givers guidelines best practice policy. For the more specific physical disability review, additional words and phrases searched included cerebral palsy spinal cord injury acquired brain injury musculo-skeletal muscular dystrophy multiple sclerosis arthritis post polio syndrome rehabilitation. The Cerebral Palsy Association of WA provided reprints of articles highly relevant to the physical disability part of the review. From the relevant articles identified, key author names and citations were further searched. The reference lists of key articles were also scanned for additional leads. Greater attention was given to locating and reviewing more recent articles, and especially macro review articles after 1990. Additional information was sought by contacting key industry leaders, organisations and government departments in Australia eg Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, State Departments of Sport and Recreation, State disability authorities, Australian Local Government Association, State Disabled Sport and Recreation groups, and the Australian Institute of Sport. The range of search procedures together resulted in many hits that were scanned for relevance to the review topic. Given the range of sub-topics to be included in the review, and consequently the number of keywords, in many cases it was immediately obvious that the majority of hits were unsuitable. Those that appeared to be relevant tended to be identified in more than one search. The relevant articles were broadly assessed for robustness of research method and validity of reported findings and those found to be unsuitable in terms of these criteria were excluded from the review. The vast number of resulting hits from searches relating several fields of interest is illustrated by a recent key review paper which, although not specifying a setting (eg local government), and using fewer data bases, employed many similar keywords. It reported 965 hits from which only 22 were immediately relevant (van der Ploeg et al. 2004) and further confirmed the lack of published work linking physical activity behaviour (and its determinants) and people with disabilities.

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SECTION 2 Disability and inclusion: Models and developmentsIndividual and organisational views about disability and inclusion directly impact at many levels on the manner and extent to which inclusive sport and recreation opportunities are provided for people with disabilities. There is a wide range of current views held by policy-making agencies and various professionals whose work brings them into contact with people with disabilities and their families and carers. This section illustrates the foundations and evolution of inclusion as a relatively recent notion in the long history of discourse around disability. Some current definitions are noted, followed by a broader historical background, and selected implications for sport and recreation providers.

Defining disabilityDisability is an umbrella term that may include impairment, activity limitation or participation restriction (World Health Organisation, 2002). There are no universally accepted definitions of disability, and even within jurisdictions, definitions and meanings may vary according to agency context and purpose. Social policy and service delivery contexts of the day often require differing approaches to definition eg in social debate and policy-making, disability definitions tend to be quite general and inclusive, and attempt to address all types and levels of disability. In contrast, those used for government benefits, pensions, employment schemes, insurance, and census are usually based on specific measures of impairment and/or incapacity that enable some form of classification, and thus criteria for decision-making and statistical groupings. To illustrate, in South Africa, The Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 describes disability in terms of long-term or recurring physical or mental impairments which substantially limit their prospects of entry into or advancement in Employment; while the Social Assistance Act 59 of 1992 defines a disabled person as one who is older than 18 years and who has a physical or mental disability of longer than 6 months duration, which makes him/her unfit to provide sufficiently for his/her own maintenance (Committee Reports of the Taylor Committee, 2006). In a local context, the service delivery focus of the current Western Australian Disability Services Act 1993 is also apparent in its definition that disability means a disability which is attributable to an intellectual, psychiatric, cognitive, neurological, sensory, or physical impairment or a combination of those impairments; which is permanent or likely to be permanent; which may or may not be of a chronic or episodic nature; and which results in o a substantially reduced capacity of the person for communication, social interaction, learning or mobility; and o a need for continuing support services (West Australian Disability Services Act 1993).

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The notion of disability adopted for this paper is that described by the Australian Disability Discrimination Act 1992 which considers disability as: total or partial loss of the persons bodily or mental functions; or total or partial loss of a part of the body; or the presence in the body of organisms causing disease or illness; or the presence in the body of organisms capable of causing disease or illness; or the malfunction, malformation or disfigurement of a part of the persons body; or a disorder or malfunction that results in the person learning differently from a person without the disorder or malfunction; or a disorder, illness or disease that affects a persons thought processes, perception of reality, emotions or judgment or that results in disturbed behaviour; The definition includes a disability that presently exists, previously existed but no longer exists, may exist in the future, or is imputed to a person. Related concepts are defined by the World Health Organisation: Impairment refers to loss or abnormality of body structure or function; activity relates to the nature and extent of functioning at the levels of the person; and participation reflects the nature and extent of a persons involvement in life situations at the societal level and reflects the interplay between impairments, activities, health conditions and contextual factors (World Health Organisation, 2002). In addition to reflecting contexts and purpose, definitions indicate variations and progression in conceptualisation of disability both internationally and within Australia. These transitions over time reflect a close connection between prevailing attitudes and the way in which societies view and treat people with disabilities including the opportunities and services made available to them. Some of these issues are further discussed.

Changing perspectives on disabilityUntil the 18th century disability was seen by many societies as an expression of witchcraft, possession by demons, or sin. These views were to some extent displaced by a more scientific understanding of impairment, and with it, a belief that medical science could cure, or at least rehabilitate, people with disabilities. An alternative view expressed during the 1960s was that disability is a learned pattern of behaviour that develops when there is long-term impairment (Nagi, 1965). However, despite this and other observations based on sociological foundation, it was the medical model that was dominant internationally until the 1980s. Medical models were built on observations of impairment, and the need to classify and solve problems through medical intervention. The model was largely formalised by the World Health Organisations International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) in 1980. The ICIDH was developed for a range of purposes in an international context eg population surveys, coding health information, health outcomes research, vocational assessment, and as a framework for social policy development. It

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introduced the conceptual separation of disability, impairment, and handicap, which had previously been used interchangeably and without any regard to the fundamental philosophical distinctions between them. Built on, but progressing from the medical model, the ICIDH defined impairment as loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure orfunction and distinguished it from disability, which was defined as any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being (Wood, 1980, p. 27). It defined handicap as disadvantage that resulted from the persons impairment or disability and that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal, depending on age, sex, social and cultural factors for that individual. Many critics were quick to dispute these descriptions and the underlying model since it was seen to still view disability as stemming from the individual and as intrinsically linked to their impairment. It was the person with disability that was required to change - most commonly through medical intervention, thus facilitating the incorporation of the medical model as part of themselves i.e. persons with disability come to see, feel, know themselves and their social position as a function of their impairment. A commonly expressed criticism was the dominant focus on the notion of disability as an individual abnormality whereby disability is seen as not being able to perform an activity considered normal for a human being, and handicap is the inability to perform a normal social role (Oliver, 1990, p. 4). This placement of the persons disability or inability at centre stage often supported the tendency to blame individuals for the physical, psychological, and social outcomes of their impairment. Moreover the handicaps listed in the ICIDH were limited to a few survival roles (eg mobility and occupation). The focus was thus still on personal factors and there was inadequate recognition of the role of social environmental factors in creating handicap and disadvantage. Operationally, this was reflected in the instruments failure to include a method of recording social barriers or facilitators that might be affecting a persons ability in various activities (Bickenbach, Chatterji, Baddley, and tsn, 1999). At a policy level, other impacts were noted e.g. the ICIDHs functional limitations focus resulted in individual adjustment and coping strategies becoming policy priorities for Censuses and other health care and social policy agencies in the UK. Thus despite the ICIDHs widespread use in the following years, there was not universal acceptance of its underpinning assumptions, validity, or utility as a basis for empirical research (Oliver, 1990; Driedger, 1988). The well-documented critiques of medical models commonly included the following observations (a) Labelling with medical terminology which ignores individual differences and creates groupings that are nothing more than terminological rubbish bins into which all the important things about us as people get thrown away (Brisendon, 1998, p. 21). (b) Labelling promotes stereotypes of disability that bring out pity, fear and patronising attitudes. (c) Viewing disability as pathology results in reinforcement of dependence, the victim status and victim-blaming (Abberley, 1987). (d) Disabled people are seen as the problem - they need to be adapted to fit into the existing physical and social world. (e) The focus is on the patient not the person.

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(f)

(g)

Treatment of people with disabilities was based on a notion of 'normality' whereby impairment was assessed against normality and people were judged on what they could not do, instead of what they could do. Quality of life and decision-making about people with disabilities lies with the medical and associated professions who administer cures.

An alternative approach during the 1980s was the Disabled People's International set of definitions that reflected early approaches to a social model of disability: Impairment: the functional limitation within the individual caused by physical, mental or sensory impairment. Disability: the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the normal life of the community on an equal level with others due to physical and social barriers (Disabled People International, 1982). These definitions reflect a fundamentally different explanation of the negative social experiences and conditions encountered by people with disabilities that that offered by the ICIDH. In this view disability is seen as a consequence of the failure of social organisation to take into account the differing needs of people with disabilities and remove the barriers they encounter. During the 1990s social perspectives achieved increasing prominence. They built on a human rights approach whereby disability was seen as societys denial of opportunities to people with impairment (Oliver, 1990) and where society is seen as actually creating disability rather than it being an attribute of an individual. Since the disability problem is created by an unaccommodating environment resulting from the prevailing attitudes toward disability, a political response is seen to be appropriate and conversely, that medical interventions and control over the disability discourse, services etc are inappropriate (Oliver, 1990). Observations supporting this model include: If I lived in a society where being in a wheelchair was no more remarkable than wearing glasses, and if the community was completely accepting and accessible, my disability would be an inconvenience and not much more than that. It is society which handicaps me, far more seriously and completely than the fact that I have spina bifida (Davis, 1989, p19). social model incorporates a holistic interpretation of the situation facing disabled people. It suggest that people with physical and mental impairments can have satisfying life-styles as disabled people if the focus of attention is shifted towards the removal of disabling barriers rather than concentration only on the rehabilitation of disabled individuals (Finkelstein and Stuart, 1996, p.171). In addition to the dominant medical and social perspectives there were other views lying between these two poles including those that see disability as a form of social deviance (Goffman, 1963), or those emphasising a socio-cultural point of view (eg Oliver, 1990). These were quite prominent in some discourse but were overshadowed by an increasing focus on the social perspective. With growing acceptance of the social model of disability during the 1990s some of the problems associated with the ICIDH were addressed in a revised version in 199697. This model, the ICIDH-2, included a greater focus on environmental factors in the form of three new dimensions - Activity, Participation and Contextual Factors. It acknowledged that a) disability is not an attribute of an individual, but rather a

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complex collection of conditions, many of which are created by the social environment, b) the management of the problem requires social action, and it is the collective responsibility of society at large to make the environmental modifications necessary for the full participation of people with disabilities in all areas of social life, c) the issue is therefore an attitudinal or ideological one requiring social change, which at the political level becomes a question of human rights. The emphasis was on a new view of disability i.e. not simply from the individual medical perspective, but also from a human rights and human development perspective. However, while clearly expanding on the previously body-centred notion of disability (Gray and Hendershot, 2000), ICIDH-2 was again openly criticised by many disability rights advocates who still saw a dominating presence of medicalbiological approaches and also a system based on the need to decide on and make comparative judgements against what is deemed normal (Pfeiffer, 1998; Oliver, 1990). This common critique was accompanied by an increasing call for a renewed social model (eg Crow, 1996) which extends beyond theory into real life by avoiding the social models perceived denial or minimalisation of the physical and psychological pain of impairment - even though disability might be reduced. For example, in disability/inclusion training discussion of impairment is often glossed over or minimised for fear of confirming stereotypes of the `tragedy' of impairment, or making the issues too complicated to convey. A renewed social model would ensure that inclusion (of people with a disability) remains the primary concern, but that impairment does exist alongside. Others have supported this view by noting that the social model is more supportive of people with static conditions such as a person with spinal cord injury using a wheelchair, rather than people with chronic illness or those whose illness manifests as a form of disability. For example, for all that we may see a variety of conditions which cause chronic pain as socially constructed, there is no doubt that when one is lying in a hospital bed breathless, in pain, and distressed that this is more than just because of some social construct. Hence we can see that there is a medical component to disability even though there are significant insights to be gained from understanding that society does actually create much of the disadvantage that those who live with impairments experience (Newell, 2004, p. 6). ... tends to deny the experience of our own bodies, insisting that our physical differences and restrictions are entirely socially created. While environmental barriers and social attitudes are a crucial part of our experience of disability and do indeed disable us - to suggest that this is all there is to it is to deny the personal experience of physical or intellectual restrictions, of illness, of the fear of dying (Morris, 1991, p.10). Sometimes, in seeking to reject the reductionism of the medical model and its institutional contexts, proponents of independent living have tended to discuss disablement as if it had nothing to do with the physical body. (Williams, 1991, p. 521). The achievement of the disability movement has been to break the link between our bodies and our social situation, and to focus on the real cause of disability, i.e. discrimination and prejudice. To mention biology, to admit pain, to confront our impairments, has been to risk the oppressors seizing on evidence that disability is really about physical limitation after all (Shakespeare, 1992, p.40).

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In 2001 the WHO attempted to address the debate between the medical and social models by recognising the validity of both and noting the appropriateness of both medical and social responses to the problems associated with disability. While most of these models were built on assumptions that regard mind, body, and society separately, later approaches place greater attention on the interaction between mind, body, and society, and this is reflected in what are loosely termed biopsychosocial models. Based on a more interactive biopsychosocial theory, these models acknowledge the dynamic interaction between health conditions and personal and environmental factors including physical environment, services available, and legislation (Dahl, 2002). This is reflected in the WHOs third classification scheme, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health 2001 (ICF) which gives examples of interacting factors including infrastructure, laws, regulations, climate, attitude, and ideologies. The ICF is seen to provide a coherent, if uneven, guide through the competing discourses of disability (Imrie, 2004). It reflects the view that mind, body, and environment are not easily separable but rather mutually constitute each other in complex ways (Marks, 1999, p25), and that disability is a compound phenomenon to which individual and social elements are both integral (Bickenbach et al. 1999). In a more practical sense, it has been noted that the focus on environment may enhance identification of barriers and facilitators of inclusion. The ICF recognises that the population as a whole is at risk from acquiring impairment and chronic illness and that ageing will inevitably increase the proportion of people with impairments. Thus disability is not special because all people over the course of their life span will have various and usually increasing needs. The concept of needs should not therefore be based on breaking the rules for the few but on designing a flexible world for the many. In addition however, there must be response to the needs and contexts of particular groups so that justice prevails in regard to access to services and equitable outcomes. While the ICF represents a significant progression from earlier views and classification tools, some note that it still requires further explanation so that practitioners consistently interpret its content, particularly in relation to understandings about impairment, biopsychosocial theory and, the notion of universalisation as the basis for disability, health, and social programmes (Imrie, 2004). Some note that greater emphasis is needed on the key premise that the functional limitations of impairment become disabling as a consequence of broader social and attitudinal relations. It has also been noted that in practice, the integrated relationship between biology, personal or psychological, and social factors is not necessarily emphasised thus still enabling a focus on individual domains e.g. far from being integrated, the three domains can be used independently, and the body and activity ones will be well accepted by biomedical, compensation, and programme eligibility gatekeepers (Fougeyrollas and Beauregard, as cited by Imrie, 2004, p.13). While the ICF illustrates an important development in the conceptualisation of disability, it has been noted that the important issue is not just another reconstruction of disability, but empowerment to enable people with disabilities to become full citizens (Keys and Dowrick, 2001). Since the release of the ICF there has been a well published recent attempt to develop a model that specifically articulates links between the functioning of people with a disability and their physical activity behaviour (and determinants) (van der Ploeg, van der Beek, van der Woude, and van Mechelen, 2004). This model, the integrated Model of Physical Activity and Disability (PAD) directly builds on the

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ICF and integrates it with aspects of various models that describe the determinants of physical activity eg Social Learning/Cognitive theories, Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behaviours, the Transtheoretical Model, and in particular, the Attitude, Social influence and Self Efficacy model. If verified as a robust and useful model, it was cited as enabling a more accurate consideration of variables that determine physical activity of people with disabilities, including that of subgroups, and consequently, better design of targeted physical activity promotion. However, at this point the model has been limited to rehabilitation applications and it is not known how relevant it may be for people with a disability who are not undergoing rehabilitation and who do their physical activity in a community sport/recreation/leisure context. In tracking major views about disability and the changes that have occurred over time, the focus has been on the dominant recent models medical and rights-based (social model). However, it has been noted that other approaches to understanding disability are still quite prevalent in Australian society eg the charity approach that is reflected almost weekly at times in disease label days and in some cases becomes competitive by depicting people as being the most needy, the most pitiful and reinforces the tragedy and indeed catastrophe of disability (Newell, 2004, p.2). While altruistically and practically aimed at fundraising for various groups, this author does not see this approach as conducive to progressing Australian community attitudes from pity for those who are publicly portrayed as different and less fortunate, to inclusion of all in community life. The need for progress away from a paternalistic, sympathybased approach toward a human rights based approach was clearly articulated by Phillip Adams in 1998 in his description of the reaction of public figures who denounced his super crip strategies for the International Year of Disabled People eg we are sick of paternalism, of people speaking for us. His experience in authoring the Break Down the Barriers Campaign lead him to further observe that human rights werent merely an issue in Burma or Afghanistan; they were missing here every time our bigotry, our buildings or institutions placed a barrier in a disabled persons path (Newell, 2004, p. 2).

InclusionToday the ICF formalisation of a biopsychosocial view of disability that stresses interactive processes is reflected in the broad notion of inclusion. Inclusion proposes that all people are recognised as individuals with the opportunity to participate in activities as a member of a community. This includes the right to take risks, make choices, make mistakes, to be independent and to reap the benefits of physical activity such as improved fitness, the acquisition of physical skills, and the learning of social norms, in a way similar to all people within a community. In its discussion of the values of inclusion, The National Centre for Physical Activity and Disability (2007) in the United States makes the following statements and quotes; to value inclusion, one must start by valuing the individual and appreciating that each person is different; inclusion allows people to value differences in each other by recognising that each person has an important contribution to make to our society, recreation inclusion refers to empowering persons who have disabling conditions to become valued and active members of their communities through sociocultural involvement in community based leisure settings; diversity is embraced and not lost in inclusion; recreation experiences that embrace this value of inclusion allow for facilitation of meaningful relationships between people with and without disabilities. It is

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only through the development of these relationships that stereotypes and stigmas can be eliminated. In practice, inclusion is often seen to have three dimensions i.e. just being there eg as a spectator, physically participating, and being a member who is actively interacting with other members of the group and feels some sense of belonging. The growing worldwide interest in the provision of quality inclusive services accessible to people with disabilities was initially driven by the rise of human rights as a major international issue, which in turn has resulted in the Charter of Rights and various other United Nations declarations. The rights approach has worked in conjunction with increasing recognition that impairment is often associated with social exclusion and is a further barrier to opportunity and engagement. As more people with disabilities move from institutional to community settings there is commonly a loss of peer contact and role models provided by other disabled people. Many are now individually segregated within their community. This isolation and segregation has exacerbated the need for active development of inclusive approaches in many facets of community living including sport, recreation and leisure. In both policy and practice in the sport and recreation context, inclusion means recognising individual differences, and providing for those differences by making adaptations and/or modifications. It means that the system responds to the needs of all participants. An inclusive activity embodies characteristics of equal participation opportunities at an appropriate level, with appropriate support. It means that the system responds to the needs of all participants. It extends to ensuring that programs, services and facilities are accessible and welcoming to all people - including those with disabilities and their carers, friends and families. This view of inclusion is broader that earlier expressions which focussed on open and modified participation/settings. It is a very practical and activity based approach and it details an inclusion spectrum comprising five alternative modes of activity; a) Open everyone in the group can participate without adaptation or modification b) Modified each person can form the task in the most appropriate way for them. This may involve changes to communication, rules, equipment, and environment c) Parallel working to a common theme but at an appropriate level using ability groupings d) Disability sport activities developed specifically for people with disabilities include participation by people who do not have disabilities e) Separate separate participation by an individual or group. (Australian Sports Commission, 2005) Although inclusion is now an accepted goal, reality and the personal preferences of people with disabilities suggest the need for a choice of options that range from fully inclusive to segregated participation. Many community providers have pursued the more open form of inclusion detailed above, but have also chosen to also recommend or offer specialised or separate services that increase participation by some individuals.

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Selected considerationsThe notion of inclusion has evolved from many views on disability and other topics and today there is a need for a consistent use of the term within and between relevant industries. There are a variety of ways of understanding disability rather than just one set approach and a range of these beliefs is evident within communities and organisations today. Tracking the major discourse over time shows how traditional approaches are seen to have contributed to the exclusion of many people with disabilities from full participation in community and society, and have contributed to further disadvantage. The emerging model of inclusion that is reaching consensus in Australia is that all people are entitled to full participation and citizenship in their own community, with some adjustments and support when required. Improving understanding of societys contribution to disability can increase awareness of how this role is revealed in the attitudes, services, and facilities in sport and recreation settings. This in turn can promote the ability and confidence to identify opportunities for inclusion. Some practical points It is convenient to classify and/or label a person as disabled but it is appropriate and more effective to identify the support they may need to make choices types and levels of participation and activity impairment is a physical fact the restrictions experienced by many people with a disability may be overcome eg by making adjustments to sport and recreation services and settings, and where necessary by the use of appropriate aids. multiple disabilities is better viewed as an individuals level of functioning in one or more domains, and severe disabilities refers to the fact that an individual requires high levels of support in a number of domains.

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SECTION 3 Local government and inclusive sport and recreationProject CAPTIVATE is clearly directed at enabling local government to fulfil its role in ensuring inclusive community sport and recreation. This section of the review considers the local government context in terms of its roles, opportunities, and current challenges that are relevant to its involvement in inclusive community sport and recreation either directly or through partnerships with sport and recreation providers and disability service providers. Subsections provide further context in terms of legislation/policy and characteristics of the disability customer base eg size, nature, and current and potential participation in sport and recreation.

Local governmentPublications regarding the role and activities of local government in sport and recreation and particularly in relation to inclusive practice are not well reported. Leading analysts and academics in the broader field of local government have also referred to this scarcity on a much wider scale when they comment that despite a vast amount of theoretical and empirical analysis of democratic government, there is relatively little research and resulting publications directly relating to local government. Enquiries made to the Australian Local Government Association (ALGA) and the West Australian Local Government Association (WALGA) also failed to identify a significant body of published information on relevant policy or project/program documents or reports. It has been suggested the relative lack of reported research into local government activities may be partly due to local governments relatively low expenditure in comparison to State and Commonwealth Governments, and the fact that it has no constitutional status, instead deriving its powers and functions only from state acts and regulations (Dollery, Marshall, and Worthington, 2003). Local government involvement in sport and recreation relates mainly to its provision of facilities and services, and for some, service purchasing, and the employment or contracting of relevant sport and recreation professionals. While many councils directly provide sport and recreation services, their role in this area is increasingly undertaken in partnership with other government and nongovernment organisations. Overall, councils currently employ a wide range of recreation/leisure professionals and many also purchase additional services from other organisations and sources. Councils are now the largest single provider of community sport and recreation facilities. They are the main contributor (77 per cent) to support of venues, grounds and facilities, while other levels of government are the majority contributors (84 per cent) to participation and special events. Government spending on sport and recreation in 2000-2001 has been estimated at $110 per person with respective contributions by Commonwealth, state, and local governments calculated to be around $10, $45, and $54. Most of this funding (62 per cent) supports venues, grounds and facilities, with an additional 25 per cent spent on participation and special events, and the remainder on administration and regulation (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002).

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Research in regional Western Australia indicates that on the whole, communities are generally satisfied with sport and recreation facilities, the majority of which belong to local government. For example, 83 per cent of people were in strong or general agreement that sports facilities in their area were good, with rates highest in the Great Southern and lowest in the Kimberley, Gascoyne and Goldfields-Esperance. Satisfaction rates for recreation facilities were slightly lower (Patterson Market Research, 1999). As governments and community organisations continue to promote physical activity as a means to improved health, greater community awareness will provoke increased demand for facilities and related services. Specific campaigns and programs (eg Be Active) that have a community based focus, together with an aging population with available leisure time will also contribute to this trend. Today there are more than 140 local governments in Western Australia distributed across the metropolitan area and nine WA Development Commission Regions. In the near future this number will fall due to structural changes including a number of amalgamations. Climate and geographic size vary enormously across councils with the smallest at 1.5 square kilometres and the largest measuring 371,696 square kilometres. There is also huge diversity in rate base, population characteristics, industry type, etc. These and many other factors contribute to the range of structures, activities, policies, roles and capacity for involvement in community services including sport and recreation. In Western Australia local government has been firmly entrenched in the State constitution since 1979 and although amenable to change at the whim of the state government of the day, has maintained and expanded its substantial role and presence within the community. Its activities are governed by the Local Government Act 1995. In the recent climate of reform, this Act has been assessed by leading analysts as having a major focus on the process of local government, rather than on the outcomes or results towards which good local governance is applied (Craven, McKenzie and McCullagh, 2006). They further note that as a consequence, there is little precision or agreement regarding the appropriate role of a local government (p24). However, it is generally accepted that the roles of local government are described by each States legislative framework and that there are few limitations on what services local government can provide. In the last few decades the role of local government has expanded significantly, following the devolution of functions to local government from other levels of government. Broadly, local government has roles in governance, advocacy, service delivery, planning and community development, and regulation. In Australia, local governments key functions tend to be narrower than in other advanced countries eg they are not directly responsible for health, police, education; but rather, their core services tend to focus on physical infrastructure (eg roads, waste management); regulatory functions (eg food, building, animals, noise); environment management/planning; information brokerage; local service coordination; and provision of community and recreation facilities and services. More recently the traditional core service roles have evolved and expanded to include a greater emphasis and involvement in human services. The vast range of activities and functional roles currently undertaken in Western Australia have recently been described in the Systemic Sustainability Study (Craven et al. 2006).

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Overall, local government occupies a unique position as one of the most responsive and accountable spheres of democracy in Australia. It has the potential to engage the community and respond to its needs like no other sphere of Government can. It Provides a voice to local aspirations. Places fundamental value on local differences and system diversity. Encourages activities and policy aimed at improving local choice and local voice. Can and will make choices that will differ from those made by others. Places a premium upon traditional democratic values that fully embrace access, accountability, representativeness, and responsiveness (Dollery, Crase and Byrnes, 2006). The position of local government thus affords many opportunities to positively impact on community life. These opportunities derive partly from its unique ability to Understand the nature of the local community and its people. Influence the local physical, social and economic environment - eg sporting and recreation facilities and water areas, parks, gardens, reserves, walkways, and other areas. Provide targeted and flexible services and programs. Involve the community in local decision-making. Encourage and support community networks. Advocate for the local community (Australian Local Government Association, 2006). A recent example of local governments ability and potential to improve community life is illustrated through its role in designing the built environment to encourage physical activity for health benefits in an aging population. Creating environments that facilitate physical activity and social interaction for this target group offers a significant impetus and opportunity to also ensure accessible spaces and facilities for people with disabilities. A recent resource produced for local government by the Australian Local Government Association reflects many of the principles and practices that apply to inclusive sport/recreation/leisure/environments. It states Local government is uniquely positioned to support age-friendly built environments by coordinating decision making within their local community, by promoting awareness of age-friendly built environments and by developing and implementing community design plans, strategies and policies that support agefriendly built environments (Australian Local Government Association, 2006, p.8). This document also clearly outlined the substantial benefits for those local governments who choose to improve efficiencies in the built environment eg. local government can benefit individuals through improved health and overall wellbeing, increase independence and greater social interaction, and therefore benefit the entire community. ALGA further notes that to achieve these outcomes, informed action is required by a range of key stakeholders within local government such as town planning, engineering, parks and gardens, sport and recreation and also aged and disability services; and that local government will need to continue to build partnerships with other spheres of government, the private sector and community organisations (Department of Health and Aging, 2004). The unique strengths and opportunities for local government are currently matched by significant external and internal challenges. A major external challenge is the requirement to participate in a period of unprecedented change whereby most Australian councils are now joining in the global trends in structural and process

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reforms in local government. This has occurred to the extent to which it is considered that local government in Australia is now an international leader in adopting a more progressive managerial style. Leading analysts note that in recent years the reforms have precipitated major changes whereby councils have restructured their organisational frameworks to cater for the outsourcing of services, developed commercial capabilities to compete in the business arena, adopted an orientation to outcomes as opposed to inputs, and introduced a range of corporate strategic practices (Dollery et al. 2003, p232). One of the most controversial key reform strategies has been the pursuit of efficiency through amalgamations. Some claim that it results in successful economies of scale, improved planning, greater access to professional expertise and a stronger customer focus but others note that this is tempered by disadvantages including loss of experienced staff through retrenchments, job insecurity, fewer outside staff (Dollery et al. 2003), and lack of acknowledgement of local governments key role as a valued advocate for communities and neighbourhoods (Craven et al. 2006). To date, the use of amalgamations as a reform strategy has not happened in the same manner or to the same extent in Western Australia as in most other States. However, in Western Australia some smaller councils will amalgamate, and others are under considerable pressure to develop alternative strategies that will ensure that their future in the community is sustainable. In addition to the pressures of ongoing structural reform, the Australian local government industry is shaped by intense fiscal pressure. Most councils currently face difficulties in raising sufficient funds to discharge their duties especially regarding infrastructure provision and maintenance. Despite the unprecedented growth in the Western Australian economy some 83 Western Australian local governments were identified in August 2006 as financially unsustainable. Reports noted a 4.5 per cent deficit in their operating surplus ratio, and a $1.7B infrastructure backlog. Those whose long-term finances were assessed as unsustainable included in particular, regional councils without large towns (73 per cent of those assessed as unsustainable), and those with declining (64 per cent) or above-average growth (16 per cent). It was further estimated that between 2006 and 2021, 35 local governments will experience reduction in population. Some of the associated challenges/options suggested for these councils were, to engage the community to establish priorities within the resources available adjust/reduce services available and/or frequency to match local demand improve revenue outcomes from other levels of government (Craven et al. 2006). In declining rural populations there are additional challenges related to the disproportionate loss of younger people. For growing communities there are other challenges including those related to the need to manage the coordination of infrastructure so that land is developed and released in a planned and timely manner in conjunction with appropriate economic and social infrastructure. Most councils face potentially significant demands on revenue. These vary between areas but can include an emerging fiscal deficit at the local government level under current policy settings, a growth rate in GDP likely to outstrip growth in rate revenue, and slower growth in sources such as financial assistance grants. Additional pressures are likely to emerge from the increasing proportion of pensioner households. Future areas of significant budgetary demand have also been identified and include health and aged care, home support services, subsidy of medical services, community transport and a range of cultural and recreation services

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(Australian Productivity Commission, 2005). These trends clearly indicate growth in human service roles from the current position where almost half of local government expenditure is already in this area. Other pressures on revenue have been identified as; increased community expectations, the reluctance by the public to pay realistic fees and charges, maintenance and modification of aging infrastructure that was constructed without consideration of people with any form of impairment, cost shifting, and the growing compliance roles (and administrative burden) associated with over 400 pieces of state legislation. With the jurisdictional roles funded by revenue from combined Commonwealth, State, and local governments, there are also ongoing funding and role tensions between the three levels of government. The burden of cost-shifting from Commonwealth and State governments to local government has steadily increased in recent years to an extent where its impact on individual councils has been estimated at up to $1m per year. Specific cost shifting examples detailed by ALGA include: a) Service gaps created by reduced or withdrawn state government services eg Home and Community Care, childcare and aged care services, valuations, safety and crime prevention, housing b) Transfer of state or federal assets to regions eg, state roads, federal airports c) Concessions and rebates created without compensation for councils eg pensioner rebates, non-rateable federal/state land d) Increased regulatory and compliance requirements, and failure to provide indexation of fees and charges eg various inspections, licensing, statutory planning and environmental protection fees (ALGA, 2007). To help ease the burden carried by Australia's 700 councils, an intergovernmental agreement on cost shifting was signed in April 2006. It provides a framework to improve the way the three spheres of government - federal, state and local - relate to each other to achieve the best possible outcomes for communities. While its full impact is yet to be realised, the intended outcomes are to a) Improve relationships between the three spheres of government by facilitating an open exchange of information and by encouraging greater co-operation. b) Promote more effective and efficient government. c) Provide greater transparency in the financial arrangements between the three spheres of government in relation to local government services and functions. d) Ensure effective consultation with local government, through local government peak representative bodies where appropriate, on the delivery of services and functions. (ALGA, 2007). Against the backdrop of revenue pressures, communities continue to place high expectations on their councils to ensure representation of local interests and high quality services including those extending beyond the traditional focus of local government. In WA this is reported to be particularly true in regional and rural areas (Craven et al. 2006). The overall trend in services demand is away from services to the property toward services to the person and in particular toward recreation and culture (Commonwealth Grants Commission, 2001). Consumer expectations are today largely prompted by their experience of services offered by the competitive and well-resourced private sector. The management of public expectations now requires new forms of cooperation between the public (eg by education about council operations and challenges, and involvement in decision making), local government (identify community needs and priorities), the private sector, other levels of government as well as increased resourcing. Both the reform process and consumer demand have given rise to the need for an increasing level of professionalism in staff and elected members. New staff

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expertise is required to enable adjustment to operating environments that are based on competition and interaction between policy networks. Managers are now required to act more autonomously and also be much more accountable Similarly, elected members are faced with a growing complexity and technical side to decision-making, and thus councils are required to provide improved induction and continuing training for them. It has also been noted that many councils also need to develop new accountability measures as part of a corruption prevention approach (Dollery et al.2003). Currently, the recruitment and retention of staff is increasingly challenging, especially in the context of a very strong WA economy. Population mobility is particularly high in the regions. A fifth of the regional population will move from their current region within five years; with the proportion that will at least probably move highest in the Pilbara 66 per cent, Goldfields-Esperance 54 per cent, Kimberley 44 per cent and Gascoyne 43 per cent (Patterson Market Research, 1999, p34). Competition for staff is endemic amongst councils and there is widespread staff predation. While the tight labour market for professional staff will make shared service delivery an operational necessity, this level of competition and predation has in many cases effectively reduced interest in resource sharing between councils. However, it is reported that some current partnerships have enabled the best use of existing staffing expertise (Craven, et al. 2006). In general, the common solution to various fiscal pressures has been to attempt to achieve more for less. Most councils have been successful in this way and reforms have to some extent enabled this approach. However, it is not a sustainable solution in the face of ongoing threats to revenue and increased community expectations. While the initial focus has been on financial sustainability, other key local processes have been identified as important to overall local government sustainability eg democratic access, accountability, representativeness and responsiveness. Other factors supporting sustainability have been identified to include the capacity of local government in terms of its ability to formulate and implement agreed policy eg through well functioning elected leadership; sufficient administrative and technical expertise; and the right to make autonomous decisions. These aspects of local government activity will also require systematic approaches for sustainable change (Dollery et al. 2006). In the Western Australian context the recent Systemic Sustainability Report recommended that in order to effectively achieve its evolving role in the context of the current challenges and opportunities it should adopt a joined up approach to five key points: Leadership in the process of change, better revenue outcomes, improved financial planning practice, new models for efficient service delivery, and securing talent and investing in expertise to ensure Councillors, Management and Staff are well equipped. They further recommended development of an industry action plan capable of being implemented: by individual councils, between councils and WALGA; and between WALGA and other governments and stakeholders (Craven et al. 2006, p. 74).

Legislation and policyLocal government support of inclusive sport and recreation practice is partly guided by several pieces of legislation which provide relevant guidelines and incentives. This section briefly describes this legislation and mentions some relevant policy developments.

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The Acts relating to disability and equal opportunity together profess the right of all people to access and fully participate in community life, and also outline responsibilities for making the adjustments that enable inclusion, eg. in Western Australia by ensuring access to public buildings and facilities. The legislation is accompanied by Government policy statements and advisory statements that are readily available (eg from the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) to assist service providers and facility developers to meet their responsibilities and understand their rights. For local government authorities the key legislation impacting on their provision of inclusive community sport and recreation is: a) Disability Discrimination Act (Commonwealth 1993) b) Equal Opportunity Act (Western Australian 1984, amended 1988); c) Disability Services Act (WA 1993, 2002), d) Carers Recognition Act (WA 2004), e) Local Government Act (WA, 1995) Details and requirements for each of these are available from the relevant authorities. Comprehensive guidance is further available from organisations such as Access Audits Australia which have produced many publications for use by government and non-government organisations on understanding access requirements/obligations and how to improve access to a variety of leisure, recreation facilities (eg Access Audits Australia, 2006). Disability Discrimination Act (Commonwealth 1993): In the last decade or so the Commonwealth Disability Discrimination Act has encouraged vast improvements in access to public places and services. This has been achieved partly through Disability Action and Inclusion Plans (DAIPs) developed by many Local Government Authorities and sport and recreation providers. Lodgement of the DAIPS with the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission further demonstrates the intention to be more inclusive, and constitutes a part-defence in the event of a claim being made against them. The Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission (HREOC) overseas the Disability Discrimination Act by monitoring DAIPS submitted by public authorities. HEREOC has supported inclusive practice across the community by activities including production of advisory notes or guidelines in a number of areas covered by the DDA: access to premises, insurance, public transport, and world wide web access development of Disability Standards on public transport, employment, education and access to premises, and conducting public inquiries resulting in outcomes such as a national captioned cinema program, significantly improved TV captioning and a range of electronic banking industry standards. In a local government context HEREOC provides information and guidance at a local and national level, and assists with Action Plans and access to the built environment. For example, working with HEREOC in 1995, the Australian Local Government Association developed several guides and best practice manuals to assist local government to prepare Action Plans under the Disability Discrimination Act. Since that time many councils have used the DAIP process to assist them in identifying service barriers and in developing strategies to overcome them. Others have used the Disability Discrimination Act framework and authority to create new agendas within their organisations and to systematically address the goal of building an inclusive community.

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HEREOC noted in 2003 that Local government DAIPS tend to reflect both community consultation and a range of roles undertaken to create accessible and inclusive communities eg by ensuring accessibility of their own services and facilities; playing a local leadership role in increasing awareness and acceptance of the needs of residents and visitors with disabilities; regulating building and development; and providing/facilitating services targeted to people with disabilities to enhance social participation. It also commented that actions taken toward achieving the objectives of the Disability Discrimination Act have undergone a shift in focus from education and awareness to practical involvement in identifying solutions to participation barriers if people with disabilities cannot access their communities then, attitudinal change toward a more welcoming and inclusive community is unlikely equal weight must be given to attitudinal change and practical changes that ensure people with disabilities can actually participate in all aspects of our community. (Ozdowski, 2003). Disability Services Act (WA 1993, 2002): In WA the state Disability Services Act also requires that public authorities, their officers, employees, agents or contractors implement a Disability Access and Inclusion Plan (DAIP) that relates to their dealings with the general public and that ensures that their activities further the principles and objectives of that Act. Comprehensive documents (available from the DSC website) have been developed to assist local government to meet their obligations in relation to their DAIP eg. Disability Access and Inclusion Plans - Resource Manual for Local Government You Can Make a Difference to Customer Relations for People with Disabilities in Local Governments and State Government Agencies (2000) - a national resource endorsed by the Western Australian Local Government Association. Advice on related matters is available from the Disability Services Commission. Carers Recognition Act (WA 2004): This Act is aimed at changing the culture of service providers so that the impact on family carers is considered when services are planned, delivered and reviewed. It applies to the Department of Health, public hospitals, the Disability Services Commission and agencies they fund to provide services. The Act requires that relevant agencies take all practicable measures to comply with the Carers Charter which states; Carers must be treated with respect and dignity. The role of carers must be recognised by including carers in the assessment, planning, delivery and review of services that impact on them and the role of carers. The views and needs of carers must be taken into account along with the views, needs and best interests of people receiving care when decisions are made that impact on carers and the role of carers. Complaints made by carers in relation to services that impact on them and the role of carers must be given due attention and consideration It recognises carers as key partners in the delivery of care; that carers have their own significant needs apart from the needs of the care recipient; and provides a mechanism for the involvement of carers in the assessment, planning and delivery of services that impact on them and their caring role. Although not applying directly to all sport and recreation service providers, its principles and intent, together with the

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Carers Charter provide valuable guidance for consideration during the development of inclusive practice and services. Local Government Act: The Local Government Act 1995 controls the way in which Local government acts across a broad range of operational areas in which Australian local government is involved as a regulator and a facilities provider. In 2004 the Local Government Act of 1995 was amended to reflect the Western Australian Governments Sustainability Strategy (2003) and now requires councils to work toward meeting the needs of current and future generations through integration of environmental protection, social advancement, and economic prosperity. The legislation is supported by various standards and codes that relate to the appropriate development of buildings and facilities. For example, technical requirements are outlined in the Building Code of Australia (with reference to various Australian Standards and Codes) with the aim of ensuring minimum requirements for health, safety and amenity in relation to buildings. Policy In addition to legislation, Government support for inclusive sport and recreation is reflected in many current policy directions eg those relating to equal opportunity, substantive equality, sustainability, citizenship, physical activity, inclusive schooling, active ageing, whole-of-government partnerships, and non-government human services reform. Of particular relevance are statements of strategic intent and position made by the WA Departments of Sport and Recreation and the Disability Commission that reflect the value of community sport and recreation for all i.e. their respective roles in enhancing quality of life through participation and achievement in sport and recreation; and advancing the opportunities, community participation and quality of life of people with disabilities. The WA Department of Sport and Recreations recent SD4 framework further notes inclusivity as one of its key principles and states the need to maximise the social benefits that come from being involved in sport and recreation, and that inclusivity is of vital social benefits. Practical developments supporting those statements include Department of Sport and Recreations Sport Sustainability Program, Community Grants Scheme, and delivery of programs including the Disability Education Program, Project CONNECT, Active After School Program, and the Active Schools Project; and DSCs Review of Recreation Services, Policy Framework for Recreation for People with Disabilities, review of the Local Area Coordination scheme, research into Physical Activity of Clients in Supported Accommodation, development of the Disability Industry Plan of WA, and joint Strategic Framework for Inclusive Sport and Recreation. Additional support has been indicated through various grant schemes. A key non-government agency that has developed policy is The National Information Communication and Network (NICAN). It is an independent national information service funded by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aging. Following its inception as an Australian Bicentennial project in 1988, NICAN provides an on-line information service in sport, recreation and tourism for people with disabilities. As part of its mandate in 1994 NICAN sponsored the development of a National Recreation Network, made up of representatives from each State and Territory. This group developed a National Policy on Recreation for People with a Disability that was used as part of a national campaign to raise awareness about people with disabilities accessing community recreation. The policy was updated in 1999 (NICAN, 1999). Throughout Australia there are many examples of local government policy and commitment to improve community life through inclusive services and facilities. Some of these are available on individual websites for councils throughout Australia.

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Disability and participation in sport and recreationAs the major provider of community sport and recreation experiences, local government can make effective use of statistics and trends associated with disability, care giving, and participation in sport and recreation by people with disabilities. For example, this information can Offer insight into the current magnitude and demographics of disability in the community. broadly indicate the need for various types and levels of support required for community activities. Inform service and facility planning and management, resource allocation, budgeting, and policy, including the development of DAIPs. Indicate future community needs/demands for sport and recreation facilities and grounds, and for various services and programs. Be used to describe people with disabilities and their families and carers as an important customer base.

Selected disability trends and statistics are listed below to indicate some of the major issues that can be explored with statistical support during the policy and service planning process. Further detail and assistance is readily available from sources including Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and the Disability Services Commission WA. Rates of disability are rising in most countries. Although it is difficult to estimate the effect of factors such as greater awareness, better surveillance, and reduction of stigma in reporting, it is generally accepted that underlying disability rates have risen. Contributing influences have been identified as: An aging population. Poverty (both a consequence and cause). Medical advances that have promoted survival across a wide spectrum of diseases, traumas, and low birth-weight infants. New conditions that have emerged eg multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome. Conditions that are apparently becoming more prevalent eg asthma, autism, mental illness, and learning disorders (Fujiura, 2001). In addition to these trends the impact of the rapidly rising prevalence of obesity on disability rates is yet to be realised. For example, one estimate for people aged 50 69 years in the USA, suggests that if current trends in obesity continue, disability rates will increase by 1 percent per year more than if there were no further weight gain (Sturm, Ringel and Andreyeva, 2004). In general these trends extend to Western Australia where people with disabilities and their carers form a significant and growing proportion of the population. For example, Ninety five percent of people with disabilities now live in the community, either alone (18%) or with family and carers (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004a), and almost 40% do not require assistance in activities of everyday life One in five (405,500) people has a disability and an estimated 246,800 are carers for people with disabilities (Disability Services Commission, n.d.) Disability in indigenous people is estimated at 2-2.5 times that for the nonindigenous population (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2003)

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It has been estimated that from 2006-2026 there will be an annual increase of 1.1% in the disability rate in the general population including an annual increase of 3.9% for those aged 65 years and older (Disability Services Commission, n.d.) Almost three quarters of people with disabilities have a physical disability and physical disability rates increase with age ie 61% for 15-24 years to 79% for those aged 55-64 years (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004a) 70% of all assistance required by people with disabilities is provided by the informal network of family and friends (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004a) In WA 246,800 carers provide day-to-day support for family or friends with disabilities (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004a) Almost 45% of primary carers themselves have disabilities. In WA 63% of carers experienced a medium to large impact on their physical health (mainly orthopaedic or spinal injuries, cardiovascular conditions and mental health), 43% have been physically injured through care giving (Caring is a Health Hazard, 2006) the supply of informal care, home-based care, and volunteers is decreasing due to trends including the aging population, later childbearing, smaller family sizes, increased family breakdown, and increased labour force participation by women (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004b) Most primary carers are not employed, depend on pensions or benefits as their main source of income, and on average earn considerably less than non-carers (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004a) It is also well established that people with a disability spend more time on leisure activities partly because they are under represented in education and the workforce particularly those with an intellectual disability

Understandings about participation in sport and recreation by people with disabilities have been largely based on extrapolation from behavioural models for the wider population and estimates and studies of participation rates. There has been no reported model linking participation and people with disabilities until a recent (but not fully validated) formulation that attempts to integrate models describing the nature of disability with those relating to physical activity in the Physical Activity for people with a Disability model (PAD) (van der Ploeg et al. 2004). While there is increasing national and local information about participation rates and patterns for people with disabilities, there is often little distinction of whether the setting or programs involve local government. Reports on participation in sport and recreation may in some cases reflect inclusion, but statistical and research findings reporting participation rates mostly refer to indices of attendance and activity levels rather than other dimensions of engagement and involvement in an activity and context. This is well described in a study of participation goals, barriers, and supports/strategies people who have experienced a stroke, research indicated that participation is more than activity performance in context; instead, it relates to being a part of the community and having access to participation opportunities and supports (Hammel, Jones, Gossett, and Morgan, 2006).

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Recent Australian statistics on participation in sport and recreation by people with disabilities and long-term health conditions do not refer specifically to local government services and facilities. However, as local government is by far the greatest provider of these opportunities, the following observations are likely to be relevant: attendance at culture and leisure venues and participation in sport and recreation, by people with disabilities is lower (55%) than for the wider community (70%) (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004c). The highest rate of participation was in those aged 18 to 24 years (66.1%) and declined with increasing age to 41.1% for those aged 65 years and over ( Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 applies also to following five statements). Slightly more males (57.3%) participated in sports and physical recreation than did females (52%). More than half of respondents report their involvement as a player, competitor, or the person who physically undertakes the activity. Almost one-quarter of players participated in sport and physical recreation that was organised by a club, association or another organisation and over 42% of players participated in some non-organised sport. The most popular sports and physical activities were walking for exercise (24.0%), swimming (8.8%), aerobics/fitness (7.4%), golf (6.1%), cycling (4.1%), fishing (4.0%) and tennis (3.9%). Activities with high male participation were golf, cycling and fishing. Females were more likely to participate in swimming, aerobics/fitness and tennis. Participation levels increased as the degree of core activity limitation reduced. There were similar rates of participation amongst disability types classified as 'Sight, hearing, speech' (51.3%) and 'Physical conditions' (50.7%). A lower rate was reported for those with an Intellectual disability condition (40.0%). (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006) p9 Carers who in addition to reporting the many positive impacts of caring, also note lack of recreation time and social isolation (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2005) Many people with disabilities and their carers (eg Carers Association of Australia, 2000) wish to be more involved in sport and recreation. After visiting relatives or friends, it is reported as their main activity away from home (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2004a) 13% of adults in WA do not participate in any physical activity and an additional 32% do not participate at a level sufficient to benefit their health (McCormack, Milligan, Giles-Corti, and Clarkson, 2003), and from the national figures presented above (ABS, 2004), it is likely that non-participation rates for people with disabilities are even higher. The body of knowledge about participation in physical activity by people with disabilities is not large but continues to grow. A recent study of activity levels of children with disabilities in metropolitan Perth found that less than half of the children and adolescents with disabilities performed sufficient physical activity to meet the Australian guidelines (Packer et al. 2006). More importantly the group reported that as children grew older, they participated in less activity, with less than one quarter of the adult group reaching the activity levels of the national benchmarks. An Australian study using interviews with parents of recently graduated school children with disabilities, revealed that very few accessed community leisure facilities or were involved in leisure activities outside their own home (Dempsey, 1991).

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Hanley (1996) also found that the most frequently engaged passive leisure activities of people with disabilities were, listening to music (35%), watching television (35%) and going to movies or drive in (26.8%), reading (16.9%), arts and crafts (14.2%), and playing computer games (12.6%). Other Australian research found that people with high support needs tended to engage in passive activities such as watching television, going to the movies and the theatre, and social activities with family and friends (Lockwood and Lockwood, 1991). A study of 194 people with disabilities in South Australia reported that the major involvement in sports, arts, or other recreation was non-involvement (13%), followed by arts/crafts (10%), swimming/aquarobics/hydrotherapy (8%), tenpin bowling (6%) and special groups such as Scouts, Wheelchair sports (6%) (Edgecombe and Crilley, 2002). Several other studies have indicated that the majority of leisure activities engaged in by people with disabilities tend to be passive in nature and home based (eg Rosen and Burchard, 1990; Crapps et al., 1985). However, researchers have also indicated significant participation by people with disabilities in away from home and physically orientated activities. For example, in an examination of the main types of away from home leisure activities of people with disabilities and the frequency of participation over the preceding year, visiting friends and relatives was found to be the most frequently engaged leisure activity of the preceding 12-month period (67.1%), followed by engagement in social and community activities (25%), and then engagement in sporting activities, which accounted for 16.7% of all responses (Dempsey and Simmons, 1995). Similarly, in New Zealand a study of the leisure participation and employment patterns and attitudes of people with a diverse range of disabilities indicated that, walking (53%), gardening (14%), cycling (13%), playing with the family (11%), gym and weight training (9%) and team sports (8%) were the most engaging activities (Hillary Commission and Workbridge, 1994). A similar study conducted by Hanley (1996) revealed that swimming (36.8%), wheelchair sports (28.7%), walking (25.7%) and tenpin bowling (25.7%) were frequent activities. In a milestone study, Sport England (2002) examined physical activities of 6564 adults with disabilities in England. Including walking, 51% of adults with disabilities had participated in at least one activity in the four weeks prior to the survey, compared with 75% of the general population. Excluding walking, the participation rates were 38% for disabled adults compared to 59% for non-disabled adults. Including walking, people with an ambulation disability were least likely to have participated in at least one activity (23%). The most popular activities were walking, swimming, cue sports, cycling aerobics, keep fit or yoga, gym, gymnastics, darts, golf (putting or pitch and putt), football, and tenpin bowling or skittles. Including walking, across all disability types a very low percentage of respondents participated in more than 3 sports (1-4%). The number of different sports played decreased as the number of disabilities increased, and as age increased. Disabled professionals were more likely to have participated in at least one sport (61%) compared with 33% of disabled, unskilled manual workers and 34% of disabled, skilled manual workers. Participants from CALD backgrounds were less likely to have participated (22-30%). Very few people with disabilities (