LITERATURE REVIEWfor CAPTIVATE: LOCAL PARTICIPATION FOR ALL A project of WA Local Government Association WA Disabled Sports Association The Centre for Cerebral Palsy Recreation & Sport Network
Funded by Disability Services Commission Department of Sport and RecreationRichard Lockwood Anne Lockwood WA Disabled Sports Association email@example.com Ph/Fax 08 9336 3277 Perth, Western Australia February 2007
Disability is a fact of life for many Australians who live alone, in group homes, or with family and friends in the community. The rate of impairment is generally steady, but Australia has an aging population, and with aging comes the increased likelihood of impairment. How we view impairment and disability has changed dramatically in recent years, but communities in general have been slow to realise that, although the impairment a person has is a reality, the disablement is caused by environmental and social barriers which have been put in place by aging infrastructure, poor planning and negative social attitudes. This is changing, with legislation, advertising campaigns, and community-focused planning making inclusion in community life a reality. Work and play are important aspects of community life, and people with disabilities are increasingly pushing to be part of these worlds. The evidence presented in this literature review is that physical activity is a positive part of all our lives, for giving us vitality, creating networks and preventing many chronic diseases that are attributable to inactivity and poor diets. For people with disabilities there is the added complication of these secondary conditions that further exacerbate their impairments. Making community sport and recreation more inclusive for people with disabilities, their families and carers is an interesting challenge for local governments and their service partners. The evidence is that it needs a wholeof-local-government commitment in principle, and then appropriate strategic planning and actions. This will invariably involve activities such as community and organisation assessments, access audits, staff training, promotion of physical activity opportunities, and various partnerships to resolve areas such as resourcing, knowledge sharing, and provision of support. Each local government is a unique entity with specific environmental and organisational characteristics that will influence its approach to ensuring that its sport and recreation services and facilities are inclusive. Community development principles offer guidance to a general approach to inclusion that can then be tailored to ensure further local buy in and provision of appropriate opportunities for particular individuals and communities. Consistent with this approach, CAPTIVATE is specifically designed to support the training of sport and recreation service providers. The development of relevant policy and a range of specific tools may assist local government and partnering providers to meet the fundamental requirement that for successful inclusion, local government will be genuinely committed and will develop the capacity necessary to ensure inclusive community sport and recreation.
R&A Lockwood Consultants
Section 1: Background, Introduction and Method Background Introduction Method
Page 1 1-2 2-3
Section 2: Disability and inclusion: Models and development
Defining disability Changing perspectives on disability Inclusion
4-5 5-10 10-11
Section 3: Local government and inclusive community sport and recreation
Local government Legislation and policy Disability and participation in sport and recreation
13-18 18-22 22-26
Section 4: Benefits of physical activity for people with physical disability
Physical activity and health benefits Physical activity and disability Physical activity and physical disability
28-29 29-31 31-38
Section 5: Barriers and enablers to participation/inclusion
Barriers and constraints Enablers and supports
39-46 46-47 48-59 60-64 65-80
Section 6: Inclusive practice: Community sport and recreation Section 7: Adult learning References
R&A Lockwood Consultants
SECTION 1 Background, Introduction and MethodBackgroundProject CAPTIVATE has drawn together three disability service organisations that work in various ways with local government to provide sport and recreation opportunities for people with disabilities: The Cerebral Palsy Association, Recreation and Sport Network, and The West Australian Disabled Sports Association. It is an umbrella project that aims to address the needs of these groups and those of the WA Local Government Association which were recently expressed in four separate project funding applications. The funding agencies, the Department of Sport and Recreation and the Disability Services Commission, had previously worked together to develop the WA Strategic Framework for Inclusive Sport and Recreation, and Captivate was seen as a natural extension of this Framework. Working with Local Government, other sport and recreation services providers, and people with disabilities, the project partners aim to develop resources for frontline staff delivering sport and recreation services provide training in the use of the resources, and develop relevant policy around inclusive sport and recreation. The Cerebral Palsy Association also wished to develop more specific resources and training with a focus on physical disability and targeted at fitness and aquatic staff in local government facilities. The first stage of project CAPTIVATE was structured to seek evidence to inform the development of the various resources and training. The method prescribed in relevant contracts was: Part I: a literature search Part II: a statewide environmental scan This report represents the completion of Part I, the literature review.
IntroductionThe contracted requirement for the literature review was described in general terms reflecting its intended use i.e. to underpin the project and the development of resources and policy and to provide a foundation for the development of evidence based inclusive sport and recreation policies and practices that can be directly linked to inclusive practice. Expectations about the nature of the content were further described to the researchers during consultation with each of the project partners and WALGA. The key areas indicated were: The development and current thinking about inclusion, particularly in relation to people with disabilities. Opportunities, capacity, and challenges to local government as an inclusive sport and recreation provider.
R&A Lockwood Consultants
Benefits of exercise for people with disabilities and a specific review on evidence relevant to physical disability. Barriers and enablers to participation and inclusion in community sport and recreation. Recent evidence of successful inclusive sport and recreation in a local government context and the basis for success. A brief review of current thinking on adult learning principles and practice. Given this range of expectations, relevant evidence has been sought across several major areas. Consequently, the sections represent a set of topics that contribute to the whole, rather than developing a specific theme. The primary audience for this document comprises the project partners and those developing the resources and training for the project. It is thus written for workers from the three different industries represented by the partners i.e. local government, sport and recreation, and disability. This document will be most valuable when considered in conjunction with the reported findings of CAPTIVATEs statewide Environmental Scan which summarise a significant amount of current West Australian input on the topics listed above. Together, the literature review and scan provide a perspective on current thinking and evidence in relation to inclusive sport and recreation.
MethodScope Reflecting the overall purpose of project CAPTIVATE, this document focuses on the inclusion of people with disabilities in sport and recreation that is provided/delivered by local government employees or purchased by them from relevant professionals. It includes activities offered through local government programs and services, and those undertaken in local government facilities and grounds. Terminology sport and recreation reflects the terminology used in CAPTIVATE documents and is used as a generic term to refer to physical activity and in some cases physical leisure activities where the reported literature uses this term. client, customer, consumer, patient are used to indicate the person with a disability who is seeking or using a service. The terms reflect those used in the reported literature. local government, councils interchangeable terms. people with disabilities disabled people interchangeable, and reflect those used in the reported literature. disability the notion of disability described in the Disability Discrimination Act (see Section 2). inclusion a broad notion that in practice extends from activities in open settings to those that are separate (see Section 2).
R&A Lockwood Consultants
Literature search process Relevant Australian and international literature was reviewed following systematic searches of library holdings through UWA Reid and Medical Libraries, and databases including MedLine, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), PsycINFO, PsychLIT, AusportMed, AUSTROM, ABS, AMED, and multiple searches using Google Scholar and Web of Science. Searches were conducted using the following key words and various combinations: sport recreation leisure physical activity exercise fitness disab