Calcium Bone is major reserve of calcium Calcium ions become available for other tissues –Bone must be destroyed to release the calcium Calcium-too high

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  • CalciumBone is major reserve of calciumCalcium ions become available for other tissuesBone must be destroyed to release the calciumCalcium-too highCardiac arrestCalcium-too lowRespiratory failure

  • Nerve function depends on calcium ionsEnzymes need it as a cofactor (enzyme connection)Blood clotting is aided by calciumBones help buffer these calcium levels

  • AGING AND SKELETONBone is continually produced and lostSex steroids (hormones) cause more lossMenopausal women increase the chance for osteoporosisWhy not similar loss in men?Bone becomes more brittleLoosing Collagen & hGHBone looses massAffects teeth too

  • Exercise and BoneBone has ability to alter its strengthStress causes bone to become strongerIncreases the mineral deposits & collagenLack of exercise causes demineralizationLoss of bone minerals because they are not being replaced

  • Mechanical StressResults from pull of skeletal musclesProblem with bedridden patientsBones in castsAthletes have stronger bones!Pull of gravityAstronautsWalking/ moderate weight liftingEpiphyseal plates & adolescents

  • Repair of Broken BonesFracturesPartial not fully broken into two pieces Complete broken into two or more piecesClosed (simple) - the bone is broken, but the skin is intact. Open (compound) - the bone exits and is visible through the skin Tobacco and nicotine increase the risk of bone fractures


  • Steps in HealingHematoma is formed.Ruptured vessels cause a blood-filled swelling.Fibrocartilage callus forms.New capillaries grow.Phagocytes (WBC) dispose of dead tissue.Connective tissue forms and closes the gap.

  • Bony callus forms.Osteogenic cells migrate into the area and multiply.The fibrocartilage is replaced with bone.This is spongy bone.Bone is remodeled.Forms a permanent patch.

  • DISORDERSOsteoporosisCondition of porous bonesReduction of bone massResorption outpaces depositionOlder females are more pronePrevention is the best cure

  • Normal vs Osteoporosis

  • not being calcifiedBone becomes soft and rubberyVitamin D deficiencyHerniated DiscLigaments become injured or weakenedPressure ruptures the fibrocartilageMaterial protrudes--herniates

  • Spina BifidaCongenital defect (starts at birth)Vertebral column laminae do not uniteCan cause paralysisAbsence of reflexesFolic acid prevents this (when mother takes right from the start)

  • CONDITIONSBunionDeformity of big toeInflammation, bone spurs, callusesKyphosisExaggeration of the thoracic curve of the vertebral column

  • LordosisExaggeration of the lumbar curve in the vertebral columnSwaybackScoliosisA sideways bending of the vertebral columnSchool testing

  • Osteogenic sarcomaBone cancer affecting osteoblastsFemur, tibia, humerus of teenagersSprainTearing or stretching of ligamentsStrainStretching or partial tearing of a muscle

  • Rheumatoid arthritisAutoimmune diseaseAttackes cartilage and joint liningsRedness, swelling, pain, loss of functionOsteoarthritisDeterioration of articular cartilageWear & tear arthritisLarger joints affected

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis