CalciumBone is major reserve of calciumCalcium ions become available for other tissuesBone must be destroyed to release the calciumCalcium-too highCardiac arrestCalcium-too lowRespiratory failure
Nerve function depends on calcium ionsEnzymes need it as a cofactor (enzyme connection)Blood clotting is aided by calciumBones help buffer these calcium levels
AGING AND SKELETONBone is continually produced and lostSex steroids (hormones) cause more lossMenopausal women increase the chance for osteoporosisWhy not similar loss in men?Bone becomes more brittleLoosing Collagen & hGHBone looses massAffects teeth too
Exercise and BoneBone has ability to alter its strengthStress causes bone to become strongerIncreases the mineral deposits & collagenLack of exercise causes demineralizationLoss of bone minerals because they are not being replaced
Mechanical StressResults from pull of skeletal musclesProblem with bedridden patientsBones in castsAthletes have stronger bones!Pull of gravityAstronautsWalking/ moderate weight liftingEpiphyseal plates & adolescents
Repair of Broken BonesFracturesPartial not fully broken into two pieces Complete broken into two or more piecesClosed (simple) - the bone is broken, but the skin is intact. Open (compound) - the bone exits and is visible through the skin Tobacco and nicotine increase the risk of bone fractures
Steps in HealingHematoma is formed.Ruptured vessels cause a blood-filled swelling.Fibrocartilage callus forms.New capillaries grow.Phagocytes (WBC) dispose of dead tissue.Connective tissue forms and closes the gap.
Bony callus forms.Osteogenic cells migrate into the area and multiply.The fibrocartilage is replaced with bone.This is spongy bone.Bone is remodeled.Forms a permanent patch.
DISORDERSOsteoporosisCondition of porous bonesReduction of bone massResorption outpaces depositionOlder females are more pronePrevention is the best cure
Normal vs Osteoporosis
http://cbs5.com/health/rickets.childhood.disease.2.446155.htmlRicketsBone not being calcifiedBone becomes soft and rubberyVitamin D deficiencyHerniated DiscLigaments become injured or weakenedPressure ruptures the fibrocartilageMaterial protrudes--herniates
Spina BifidaCongenital defect (starts at birth)Vertebral column laminae do not uniteCan cause paralysisAbsence of reflexesFolic acid prevents this (when mother takes right from the start)
CONDITIONSBunionDeformity of big toeInflammation, bone spurs, callusesKyphosisExaggeration of the thoracic curve of the vertebral column
LordosisExaggeration of the lumbar curve in the vertebral columnSwaybackScoliosisA sideways bending of the vertebral columnSchool testing
Osteogenic sarcomaBone cancer affecting osteoblastsFemur, tibia, humerus of teenagersSprainTearing or stretching of ligamentsStrainStretching or partial tearing of a muscle
Rheumatoid arthritisAutoimmune diseaseAttackes cartilage and joint liningsRedness, swelling, pain, loss of functionOsteoarthritisDeterioration of articular cartilageWear & tear arthritisLarger joints affected
CONSIDER BONE HEALING HERE!!!