Cac Buoc Danh Gia CLDV Dung SERVPERF

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GVHD: Phm L Hng Nhung

M Hnh SERPERF

O LNG CHT LNG DCH V S DNG M HNH SERVPERFI. GII THIU CHUNG V M HNH SERVPERFKhi cnh tranh trong ngnh cng nghip dch v tng ln, cc khi nim v cht lng dch v ngy cng quan trng, cht lng dch v c xc nh l mt yu t quyt nh th phn, u t v gim chi ph. Xc nh v o lng cht lng dch v c tm quan trng vi cc nh cung cp dch v. C rt nhiu nh nghin cu c gng nh ngha v o lng cht lng dch v. Cht lng dch v l khong cch gia s mong i v dch v ca khch hng trc khi s dng dch v v nhn thc ca h sau khi s dng dch v thc t. Cc nh nghin cu u tin a ra thang o SERVQUAL o lng CLDV. Tuy nhin, c mt s kh khn khi s dng thang o ny. T nhng vn trn, mt bin th ca thang o SERVQUAL ra i, c tn l thang o SERVPERF. Thang o SERVFERP c s dng o lng cm nhn ca khch hng t xc nh cht lng dch v thay v o lng c cht lng cm nhn ln k vng nh thang o SERVQUAL. Thang o SERVPERF c cc tc gi Cronin & Taylor (1992) a ra da trn vic khc phc nhng kh khn khi s dng thang o SERVQUAL cng vi 5 nhn t ca cht lng dch v: tin cy, phn hi, s bo m, s cm thng v tnh hu hnh v 22 bin quan st c s dng o lng 5 nhn t k trn.

II. CC BC THC HIN NGHIN CU CHT LNG DCH V S DNG M HNH SERVPERFGm 2 bc:1.

Bc 1: Nghin cu nh tnh: 1.1. Nhm nghin cu t chc hp nhm, tho lun xc nh cc vn sau: Tng th: l nhng khch hng s dng dch v m chng ta ang cn

nh gi. Mu: c th xc nh mu theo cng thc sau:

.n = N/(1+N *e2)

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Trong : n : c mu N: tng th e: sai s ti a Cc bin quan st =>Bng cu hi gm bao nhiu nhm v tiu ch (Da vo 5 nhm v 22 tiu ch gc). Thang o no (Lirkert 5 hoc 7) VD: Bng cu hi nh gi cht lng dch v ca cng ty XYZ , s dng thang o Likert 5 mc . Bng cu hi c dng nh sau:

BNG CU HI NH GI CHT LNG DCH V CA CNG TY XYZS th t mu: .. Ngy:. H tn phng vn vin:.

Xin cho, ti tn l ., thuc nhm nghin cu th trng..Hin chng ti ang tin hnh kho st kin khch hng v cht lng dch v ca cng ty XYZ. Cuc kho st ny s gip chng ti c c s ci thin, nng cao cht lng phc v ca Cng ty XYZ nhm p ng nhu cu ngy cng cao ca qu khch. Do vy, ti rt mong nhn c s cng tc chn tnh nht ca Anh/ Ch. Chng ti mong Anh/ch dnh cht thi gian khong 30 pht tr li cc cu hi di y. Cc kin tr li ca Anh/ Ch s c gi b mt tuyt i.

I. PHN SNG LC (c th bao gm nhng cu hi sau)

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Q1. C thnh vin no trong gia nh Anh/ Ch hoc ngi thn ca Anh/ Ch hin ang lm vic ti Cng ty XYZ khng? (1) C Dng (2) Khng Tip tc Q2. C thnh vin no trong gia nh Anh/ Ch hoc ngi thn ca Anh/ Ch hin ang lm vic ti cc cng ty nghin cu th trng khng? (1) C Dng (1) C Tip tc (2) Khng Tip tc (2) Khng Dng Q3. Anh/ Ch tng s dng dch v ca Cng ty XYZ cha?

II. PHN CT LIQ4. Anh/ Ch hy cho bit mc ng ca Anh/ Ch v cc pht biu di y (bng cch nh du x vo cc thch hp) ? 1. Rt khng ng 2. Khng ng 3. Trung bnh 4. ng 5. Rt ng CC PHT BIU NH GI CA KH 1 S hu hnh (Tangible) Cng ty XYZ c trang thit b hin i Cng ty XYZ c c s vt cht trng rt hp dn Nhn vin ca cng ty XYZ c trang phc gn gng, cn thn C s vt cht ca cng ty XYZ c hnh thc, kiu dng hp dn v lin quan n dch v cung cp S tin cy (Reliability) 5. Khi ha s thc hin 1 iu g vo khong thi gian c th,cng ty XYZ s thc hin 6.Khi bn c vn , cng ty XYZ th hin s quan tm chn thnh khi gii quyt vn 7. Cng ty XYZ thc hin dch v ngay t ln u tin 8. Cng ty XYZ cung cp dch v ng vo thi im cng ty ha s thc hin 9. Cng ty XYZ lun lu tm n vic gi gn ting tm ca mnh. 2 3 4

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Tinh thn trch nhim (Responsiveness) 10. Cng ty XYZ cho khch hng bit khi no h cung cp dch v cho

11.Nhn vin ca cng ty XYZ lun nhanh chng phc v dch v cho khch hng. 12.Nhn vin ca cng ty XYZ lun sn lng gip khch hng

13.Nhn vin cng ty XYZ khng bao gi qu bn rn khng p ng yu cu ca khch hng. S m bo (Assurance) 14.Khch hng c th tin tng mi hnh vi ca nhn vin trong cng ty XYZ. 15.Khch hng cm thy an ton khi thc hin giao dch vi cng ty XYZ. 16.Nhn vin XYZ lun nim n, lch s v nh nhn vi khch hng

17.Nhn vin lun c cng ty XYZ cp nht kin thc, nng cao tay ngh thc hin tt cng vic ca h S cm thong (Empathy): 18.Cng ty XYZ lun dnh s ch n tng c nhn khch hng 19.Nhn vin cng ty XYZ lun quan tm n khch hng 20.Nhn vin cng ty XYZ hiu r nhu cu ca khch hng. 21.Nhn vin cng ty XYZ lun t li ch ca khch hng ln hng u.

22.Cng ty XYZ lm vic vo nhng gi thun tin cho khch hng ca h

Q5. Anh/ Ch hy cho bit mc hi long ca Anh/ Ch v dch v ca Cng ty XYZ ? (1) Rt khng hi lng (4) Hi lng (2) Khng hi lng (5) Rt hi lng (3) Trung bnh

III. PHN PHN LOI ( c th gm nhng cu hi sau:)

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Xin Anh/ Ch vui lng cho bit mt s thng tin c nhn sau: Q6. Anh/ Ch cn c than hay lp gia nh? (1) c thn (1) M ch (4) Cao ng (1)18-24 (4) 39-45 (1) < 2 triu (1) Nam (2) Tiu hc (5) i hc (2) 25-31 (5) >45 (2) 2-5 triu (2) N (3) 5-10 triu (4) >10 triu (2) C gia nh ( 3) Trung hc (6) Sau i hc (3) 32-38 Q7. Vui lng cho bit trnh hc vn ca Anh/ Ch ?

Q8. Xin vui lng cho bit Anh/ Ch thuc nhm tui no sau y:

Q9. Xin cho bit thu nhp hng thng ca Anh/ Ch Q10. Xin vui lng cho bit gii tnh ca Anh/ Ch:

CHNG TI XIN CHN THNH CM N S GIP CA ANH/ CH!

1.2.M hnh nh th no

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VD:

1.3. Xc nh gi thit VD: Cc gi thit cn kim nh nh sau: H1: Phng tin hu hnh c quan h dng vi s hi long, ngha l

phng tin hu hnh ca dch v c khch hang nh gi cng cao, th mc hi lng ca khch hang i vi dch v cng ln v ngc li. H2: Tin cy quan h dng vi s hi lng. H3: p ng quan h dng vi s hi lng. H4: Kh nng phc v quan h dng vi s hi lng H5: Cm thng quan h dng vi s hi lng

1.4. Cng thc chung cho m hnh SEVRPERF

Trong :

SQ = (Pj ij) Ij= 1SQ: Cht lng DV Pij: Cm nhn ca KH i i vi DV j no Ij: trng s ca DV jNhm: 01

k

1.4.1.1.4.2. 1.4.3.

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1.4.4.

k: s lng DV p dng trong m hnh

2. Bc 2: Nghin cu nh lng: Sau khi c s liu, dng phn mm thng k (SPSS) kim nh cc

tham s v gi thit sau y: 2.1. Thng k m t cc bin quan st.

Tm h s Alpha Cronbach kim nh tin cy ca m hnh.

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Tnh im trung bnh ca cc bin quan st: VD:

=> Thng qua gi tr trung bnh (mean), gi tr ln nht (max), nh nht (min) v lch chun chng ta c th nhn bit nh gi chung ca khch hng i vi cht lng dch v m cng ty cung cp. ngha ca gi tr trung bnh Gi tr khong cch = (Max min) / n = (5 -1)/5 = 0.8

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Gi tr trung bnh 1.00 1.80 1.81 2.60 2.61 3.40 3.41 4.20 4.21 5.00

ngha Rt khng tt Khng tt Trung bnh Tt Rt tt

Nh vy, theo v d trn ta thy cht lng dch v gio dc ca STU c sinh vin nh gi tng i tt. Cc gi tr trung bnh dao ng t 3.29 3.78.2.2. t gi thit

VD: H1: Thnh phn tin cy c tng quan dng vi s hi lng ca KH H2: Thnh phn p ng c tng quan dng vi s hi lng ca KH H3: Thnh phn nng lc phc v c tng quan dng vi s hi lng ca KH H4: Thnh phn ng cm c tng quan dng vi s hi long ca KH H5: Thnh phn phng tin hu hnh c tng quan dng vi s hi lng ca KH2.3. Xc nh hm hi quy a bin. Phn tch hi quy kim nh m hnh.

VD:

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2.4. T h s Bta suy ra mc nh hng ca 5 nhn t n s hi lng

ca khch hang. H s ny cng cao th nhn t cng c nh hng. VD: M hnh SERVPERF 1. Phng tin hu hnh (0,284) 2. Nng lc phc v ( 0,201) 3. p ng (0,182) 4. ng cm (0,165) 5. Tin cy (0,140)

2.5. Da vo kt qu thu c, rt ra kt lun: nhn t no c nh hng ln nht n cht lng DV, nhn t no cn khc phc, t a ra cc gp v kin ngh cho doanh nghip.

III. U, NHC IM CA M HNH SERVPERF1. u im - n gin, d thc hin , t tn thi gian v chi ph kho st. - Cho kt qu chnh xc, tin cy cao hn so vi SERVQUAL v: + Khi c hi v mc cm nhn, ngi tr li c xu hng so snh gia mong mun v cm nhn trong u tr li bn cu hi, lm gim sai s v sai lch trong kt qu. + M hnh SERVPERF b qua phn hi v k vng ca khch hng khi nim kh m h i vi ngi tr li, gip hn ch c sai st trong cht lng d liu thu thp. - Bng cu hi ca SERVPERF ngn gn hn mt na so vi SERQUAL, khng gy nhm chn v mt thi gian cho ngi tr.2. Nhc im:

- M hnh SERVPERF khng th hin c thng tin then cht nh hng n mc cm nhn cht lng dch v ca khch hng, l s k vng ca khch hng. - Mt s ngi cho rng SERVPERF cha kim tra c ton din v trit cc nhu cu dch v v cht lng dch v cung cp.

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