Cabling and Topology Chapter 3. Objectives Explain the different types of network topologies Describe the different types of network cabling Describe.

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Cabling and Topology Chapter 3 Slide 2 Objectives Explain the different types of network topologies Describe the different types of network cabling Describe the IEEE networking standards Slide 3 Overview Slide 4 Three Parts to Chapter 3 Network Topology Most common standardized cable types IEEE Committees for network technology standards Slide 5 Topology Slide 6 Network topology The way that cables and other pieces of hardware connect to one another Slide 7 Bus topology Single bus cable Connects all computer in a line Ring topology Central ring of cable Connects all computers in a ring Bus and Ring Slide 8 Figure 3.1 Bus and ring topologies Slide 9 Figure 3.2 Real-world bus topology Slide 10 Data flow Bus topology Data flows from each computer onto the bus Termination required at ends to prevent data reflection Ring Topology Data flows from one computer to next one in circle No end of cable and no need for termination Slide 11 Figure 3.3 Terminated bus topology Slide 12 Figure 3.4 Ring topology moving in a certain direction Slide 13 Problem with Bus and Ring Entire network stops working if the cable is broken at any point. Slide 14 Figure 3.5 Nobody is talking! Slide 15 Star topology has a central connection for all computers Fault tolerance benefit over bus and ring Was not successful early on More expensive than bus and ring Difficult to redesign early bus and ring hardware Star Slide 16 Figure 3.6 Star topology Slide 17 Hybrid topology combines topologies Physical topology How cables physically look Signaling topology How the signals travel electronically Hybrids Slide 18 Star-ring topology Physical star + signaling ring Ring shrunk down into a hub-like box Cables connect to the hub Star-bus topology Physical star + signaling bus Segment (bus) shrunk down into a hub-like box Cables connect to the hub Slide 19 Figure 3.7 Shrinking the ring Slide 20 Figure 3.8 Shrinking the segment Slide 21 Mesh topology Every computer connects to every other computer via two or more routes Two types of mesh topology Partially-meshed topology At least two machines have redundant connections Fully-meshed topology Every computer connects directly to every other computer Most fault tolerant Mesh and Point-to-Multipoint Slide 22 Figure 3.9 Mesh and point-to-multipoint Slide 23 Figure 3.10 Partially- and fully-meshed topologies Slide 24 Point-to-multipoint topology A single system is a common source Figure 3.11 Comparing star and point-to-multipoint Slide 25 Two computers connect directly No need for a central hub Wired or wireless Point-to-Point Figure 3.12 Point-to-Point Slide 26 Topology is only one feature of a network Other network features What is the cable made of? How long can it be? How do machines decide which machine should send data and when? Parameters of a Topology Slide 27 Network technology A practical application of a topology, and other technologies that comprise a network Examples 10BaseT 1000BaseF 10GBaseLX Slide 28 Cabling Slide 29 A central conductor wire Surrounded by an insulating material Surrounded by a braided metal shield Coaxial Cable Figure 3.13 Cutaway view of coaxial cable Slide 30 Outer mesh layer of coaxial cable Shields transmissions from electromagnetic interference (EMI) Figure 3.14 Coaxial cable showing braided metal shielding Slide 31 Coaxial connectors in older networks Bayonet-style BNC Connectors Vampire taps pierced the cable Figure 3.15 BNC connector on coaxial cable Slide 32 Connecting cable modems F-type screw-on connector Figure 3.16 F-type connector on coaxial cable Slide 33 RG rating for coaxial cable Developed by military RG-6 is predominate cable today RG-59 cable is rarely used Figure 3.17 RG-6 cable Slide 34 Coaxial cable Ohm rating Relative measure of resistance RG-6 and RG-59 are rated at 75 Ohms Figure 3.18 Ohm rating (on an older RG-58 cable used for networking) Slide 35 Splitting coaxial cable Figure 3.19 Coaxial splitter Figure 3.20 Barrel connector Slide 36 Extending coaxial cable Figure 3.20 Barrel connector Slide 37 Most common network cabling Twisted pairs of cables, bundled together Twists reduce crosstalk interference Twisted Pair Slide 38 Shielding protects from electromagnetic interference (EMI) Needed in locations with excessive EMI Most common is IBM Type 1 cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Figure 3.21 Shielded twisted pair Slide 39 Most common Twisted pairs of wires with plastic jacket Cheaper than STP Also used in telephone systems Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Figure 3.22 Unshielded twisted pair Slide 40 Category (CAT) ratings are grades of cable ratings Rated in MHz Most common categories are in Table 3.1 CAT Ratings Slide 41 CAT Ratings for UTP CATMax RatingFrequencyMax BandwidthStatus with TIA/EIA CAT1

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