C OGNITION Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity and Language

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<ul><li><p>COGNITIONThinking, Problem Solving, Creativity and Language</p></li><li><p>THINKINGCognitionAll mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering an communicating.</p></li><li><p>CONCEPTSThe mental categories used to organize events and objects, are often arranged in hierarchical order from general to more specific Example - organism, animal, vertebrate, quadruped, dog, collie. </p><p>Such categories help people to understand new information and to plan Example - by dividing available time into periods for study, class attendance, recreation, and so forth. </p></li><li><p>PROTOTYPE A mental image or best example of a category that all members of the category need to be similar</p></li><li><p>SOLVING PROBLEMS</p></li><li><p>STRATEGIESAlgorithmsStep by step procedure that guarantee a solutionSystematically thinking through every possible solution</p><p>HeuristicsA simple thinking strategy that allows for judgmentsRule of Thumb that shortcuts solving complex problems</p><p>InsightA sight and often novel realization of the solution to a problemAHA moment</p></li><li><p>CREATIVITY The ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable</p><p>Great ideas are often the result of hundreds of mistakes that turned out well. </p></li><li><p>FIVE COMPONENTS OF CREATIVITYExpertiseMore knowledge allows for more ideasImaginative Thinking SkillsLooking at things in new waysA Venturesome PersonalityA person that is willing to try something newIntrinsic MotivationInterest and challenges more important than outcome A Creative EnvironmentBeing in a space that fosters thought permits risks </p></li><li><p>OBSTACLES TO PROBLEM SOLVING</p></li><li><p>Confirmation BiasSeeking for information that supports our preconception and to ignore contradictory evidence</p><p>FixationThe inability to see a problem from a fresh perspectiveMental Set A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, especially when this approach has been successful in the pastFunctional FixednessThe tendency to think of only the familiar functions for an objects, without imagining alternative uses</p></li><li><p>MAKING DECISIONS AND FORMING JUDGMENTS </p></li><li><p>REPRESENTATIVENESS HEURISTICPeople tend to judge the probability of an event by finding a comparable known event and assuming that the probabilities will be similar.</p><p>If something does not fit exactly into a known category, we will approximate with the nearest class available.</p><p>This is a type of stereotyping. We tend to judge people according to the likelihood that they fit our representation of groups to which we feel they should belong</p></li><li><p>AVAILABILITY HEURISTICWe make a judgment based on what we can remember, rather than complete data.</p><p> In particular, we use this for judging frequency or likelihood of events.</p></li><li><p>OVERCONFIDENCEThe tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments.</p><p>What percentage of accused felons plead insanity?Less than one percent</p><p>What percentage are acquitted? Only of a quarter of those are ultimately acquitted</p></li><li><p>BELIEF PERSEVERANCE PHENOMENONClinging to ones own conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.</p><p>This could be why teachers expectations can influence how students perform in school. Teachers that do not believe their students are not capable may not change their minds if they see evidence to the contrary.</p></li><li><p>FRAMINGThe way an issue is presented.</p><p>People can be persuaded by the way products are framed.Sales 25% off may induce people to spend more than they intended.Low-Fat may cause people to over eat not realizing the serving size did not increase </p></li></ul>