BZA BCI Projects - uni- Conventional electrode caps from EGI, Neuroscan, and Electro-Cap. 7 Newer EEG

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  • BCI Systems

    Brendan Allison, Ph.D. Institute for Automation University of Bremen 29 January, 2008

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    A BCI enables communication without movement.

    Some patients cannot use any interface requiring movement.

    What is a BCI?

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    What is a BCI?

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    Most BCIs translate your brain’s electrical activity (EEGs) into messages or commands.

    Performing mental tasks produces electrical activity detectable with electrode caps.

    What is a BCI?

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.doesgodexist.org/NovDec00/brain.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.doesgodexist.org/NovDec00/IsThisParadise.html&h=172&w=213&sz=8&tbnid=6EDgvBeq5T4J:&tbnh=81&tbnw=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthinking%2Bbrain%26start%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8%26sa%3DN http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.dal.ca/~connol/pictures/thinking_brain.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.dal.ca/~connol/john.html%3Fresearcher_id%3D31&h=400&w=400&sz=132&tbnid=1RB1UL-wMukJ:&tbnh=120&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthinking%2Bbrain%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.scottcamazine.com/photos/brain/images/16Brain_EEG_jpg.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.scottcamazine.com/photos/brain/pages/16Brain_EEG_jpg.htm&h=351&w=450&sz=69&tbnid=LwW7fUlVFNXK-M:&tbnh=96&tbnw=124&hl=en&start=1&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrain%2BEEG%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG

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    When a neuron is active, its voltage may change by 100 mV or more.

    Electrical activity in a single neuron.

    How do EEGs work? Neural communication

    produces electrical activity.

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    This activity may be detectable to electrodes on the scalp.

    How do EEGs work?

    Conventional electrode caps from EGI, Neuroscan, and Electro-Cap.

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://inc2.ucsd.edu/~leelab/___Projects/Bioinformatics/neuron.jpg&imgrefurl=http://inc2.ucsd.edu/~leelab/___Projects/Bioinformatics/bioinformatics.html&h=625&w=422&sz=103&tbnid=KDj2W8YOG5sA9M:&tbnh=134&tbnw=90&hl=en&start=10&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsingle%2Bneuron%2Brecording%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

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    Newer EEG recording systems:

    • Require less or no prep time and skill • Require less or no gel • Require fewer electrodes • Are more portable • Handle artifacts better • Are wireless • Are cheaper

    How do EEGs work?

    Field recording systems from Quasar, Advanced Brain Monitoring, and Pineda et al (2003).

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    QUASAR Hybrid or eIBE sensors

    Audio Headset EOG/EEG GlassesQUASAR IBE Electrodes

    How do EEGs work?

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    Emotiv and NeuroSky systems

    How do EEGs work?

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    Invasive BCIs record activity from electrodes under the scalp.

    Pyramidal neurons (Kandel et al., 1988) Electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording montage in a human patient. (Leuthardt et al., 2004)

    How do EEGs work?

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    Other functional imaging approaches:

    • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) • Magnetoencephalography (MEG) • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) • Functional Near Infrared (fNIR)

    How do EEGs work?

    A functional MRI An MEG machine Functional Near Infrared

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    BCIs cannot read minds or literally interpret mental activity.

    hello yes

    pain

    What isn’t a BCI?

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    BCIs are a popular topic in sci fi!

    The Matrices Firefox Strange Days Neuromancer

    Johnny Mnemonic

    Star Trek: The Cage

    Dreamscape The X – Mens

    What isn’t a BCI?

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=web.utk.edu/~lubar/images/bm11.jpg&imgrefurl=http://web.utk.edu/~lubar/lab.html&h=485&w=647&sz=15&tbnid=SYXlxEC38pEJ:&tbnh=101&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Delectrode%2Bgel%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.dal.ca/~connol/pictures/thinking_brain.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.dal.ca/~connol/john.html%3Fresearcher_id%3D31&h=400&w=400&sz=132&tbnid=1RB1UL-wMukJ:&tbnh=120&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthinking%2Bbrain%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.doesgodexist.org/NovDec00/brain.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.doesgodexist.org/NovDec00/IsThisParadise.html&h=172&w=213&sz=8&tbnid=6EDgvBeq5T4J:&tbnh=81&tbnw=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthinking%2Bbrain%26start%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8%26sa%3DN http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://suwan.web.infoseek.co.jp/obkaigai/Torrey%2520Pine%2520Golf%2520Course%25200023.JPG&imgrefurl=http://suwan.web.infoseek.co.jp/obkaigai/obkaigai.htm&h=432&w=576&sz=28&tbnid=7vO9PbDzwEkgdM:&tbnh=99&tbnw=132&hl=en&start=9&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgolf%2Btorrey%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG

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    More bci fi ….

    Total Recall Minority ReportBrainstorm The Lawnmower Men

    The Govenator!!

    What isn’t a BCI?

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.dal.ca/~connol/pictures/thinking_brain.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.dal.ca/~connol/john.html%3Fresearcher_id%3D31&h=400&w=400&sz=132&tbnid=1RB1UL-wMukJ:&tbnh=120&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthinking%2Bbrain%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=web.utk.edu/~lubar/images/bm11.jpg&imgrefurl=http://web.utk.edu/~lubar/lab.html&h=485&w=647&sz=15&tbnid=SYXlxEC38pEJ:&tbnh=101&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Delectrode%2Bgel%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://suwan.web.infoseek.co.jp/obkaigai/Torrey%2520Pine%2520Golf%2520Course%25200023.JPG&imgrefurl=http://suwan.web.infoseek.co.jp/obkaigai/obkaigai.htm&h=432&w=576&sz=28&tbnid=7vO9PbDzwEkgdM:&tbnh=99&tbnw=132&hl=en&start=9&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgolf%2Btorrey%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.scottcamazine.com/photos/brain/images/16Brain_EEG_jpg.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.scottcamazine.com/photos/brain/pages/16Brain_EEG_jpg.htm&h=351&w=450&sz=69&tbnid=LwW7fUlVFNXK-M:&tbnh=96&tbnw=124&hl=en&start=1&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrain%2BEEG%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG

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    BCIs cannot:

    • Read your thoughts.

    What isn’t a BCI?

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    BCIs cannot:

    • Operate without your knowledge or free will.

    What isn’t a BCI?

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    BCIs cannot:

    • Write to the brain.

    What isn’t a BCI?

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    BCIs cannot:

    • Repair injured areas.

    What isn’t a BCI?

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    These similar approaches are not BCIs:

    • Biofeedback • Prosthetics • Retinal or cochlear implants • Medical EEGs • EEG or fMRI Lie Detection • Neuromarketing • Employee screening • Attention or fatigue monitors

    What isn’t a BCI?

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    BCIs rely on voluntary mental activities such as:

    Imagined movement

    What is a BCI?

    Torrey Pines golf course

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.nctimes.com/content/articles/2005/07/15/sports/professional/22_47_497_14_05.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nctimes.com/articles/2005/07/15/sports/professional/22_47_497_14_05.txt&h=593&w=400&sz=35&tbnid=CrYPmgkFW8VU7M:&tbnh=133&tbnw=89&hl=en&start=167&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgolf%2Btorrey%26start%3D160%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://suwan.web.infoseek.co.jp/obkaigai/Torrey%2520Pine%2520Golf%2520Course%25200023.JPG&imgrefurl=http://suwan.web.infoseek.co.jp/obkaigai/obkaigai.htm&h=432&w=576&sz=28&tbnid=7vO9PbDzwEkgdM:&tbnh=99&tbnw=132&hl=en&start=9&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgolf%2Btorrey%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG

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    BCIs rely on voluntary mental activities such as:

    Emotional imagery

    What is a BCI?

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://rrnews.org/library2/gldymd.jpg&imgrefurl=http://rrnews.org/library2/rd981031.htm&h=367&w=460&sz=158&tbnid=lYslqyWDo-Y1ZM:&tbnh=99&tbnw=125&hl=en&start=23&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgolfer%2Bangry%26start%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

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    BCIs rely on voluntary mental activities such as:

    Selective attention (SSVEP)

    What is a BCI?

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    BCIs rely on voluntary mental activities such as:

    Selective attention (P300)

    What is a BCI?

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    BCIs rely on voluntary mental activities such as:

    Certain mental tasks 6

    X 9 42

    Object rotation Math Singing

    What is a BCI?

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    What is a BCI?

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    How do BCIs work?

    o General Schematic o P300 BCI o Mu BCI o Other BCIs

    Components

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    A BCI requires the following:

    - At leas