Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf

  • Published on
    10-Feb-2018

  • View
    217

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 1/22</p><p>LUMMUS CATADIENE</p><p>n-</p><p>Butane Dehydrogenation</p><p>Unit for Butadiene</p><p>Production</p><p>Technical Information</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 2/22</p><p>Table of Contents</p><p>Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1</p><p>Technology Overview .............................................................................................................. 4</p><p>Technical Information</p><p>Feedstock and Product Specifications ...................................................................................... 6</p><p>Process Description and Process Flow Diagram ....................................................................... 7</p><p>Overall Material Balance ....................................................................................................... 10</p><p>Utility Consumption .............................................................................................................. 11</p><p>Catalyst and Chemical Consumption...................................................................................... 11</p><p>Environmental Considerations ............................................................................................... 11</p><p>Plant Operation ...................................................................................................................... 13</p><p>Plot Requirements.................................................................................................................. 14</p><p>Manpower Requirements ....................................................................................................... 15</p><p>Licensor Capabilities - Sole Source Responsibility ................................................................ 16</p><p>Experience ............................................................................................................................. 17Reference .............................................................................................................................. 20</p><p>CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene (8/11)</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 3/22</p><p>Introduction</p><p>CATADIENE is the</p><p>on ly one-step route</p><p>from n -butane to</p><p>butadiene</p><p>Lummus Technology, a CB&amp;I Company (Lummus) is pleased topresent this technical information document to support your efforts tobuild a CATADIENE plant to produce butenes or/and butadiene. TheCATADIENE process is the only available technology to convert</p><p>normal butane to n-butenes and n-butenes to butadiene in a singlereaction step. By selecting our CATADIENE technology for a 1,3-</p><p>butadiene project, the producer is provided with the worlds most</p><p>widely used process backed by Lummus commitment to technical</p><p>excellence.</p><p>Unmatched Nineteen CATADIENE plants have been constructed worldwide with</p><p>Commercial a combined capacity in excess of 1,200,000 MTA of butadiene. TheExper ience most recent CATADIENE plant to start up is located in Tobolsk,</p><p>Russia. This plant, at a capacity of 180,000 MTA, continues tooperate reliably today. Most of the earlier CATADIENE plants wereshut down in the 1970s and 1980s when cheap byproduct butadienefrom steam cracking of liquid feeds made butane dehydrogenationuneconomical. A recent trend to lighter feedstocks has reduced theamount of byproduct butadiene and the butane dehydrogenation routeto butadiene is once again attractive in many locations.</p><p>The CATADIENE process was the forerunner to the widely accepted</p><p>CATOFIN technology and uses the same basic reaction system.Building on the well-proven CATADIENE system, CATOFIN wasdeveloped to meet the rapidly growing demand for propylene andisobutylene.</p><p>CATOFIN is currently used for about 65% of the w orlds</p><p>propane/isobutane dehydrogenation capacity. Commercial operatingexperience demonstrates the capability to exceed design capacity,yield, and catalyst life. The CATOFIN process is used for the worlds</p><p>largest dehydrogenation units in operation.</p><p>Two new i-C4CATOFIN projects have been awarded to Lummus in</p><p>2010 to produce isobutylene from isobutane.</p><p>A total of ten C3CATOFIN units have been licensed for production</p><p>of propylene. Licensed capacities range from 250 KMTA to 650KMTA.</p><p>Lummus is currently carrying out the basic design of a 600 KMTA C3</p><p>CATOFIN Unit for Tianjin Bohua Petrochemical Co., China. Inaddition, the basic design for a 650 KMTA C3CATOFIN Unit for Ibn</p><p>CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene 1</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 4/22</p><p>Introduction</p><p>CATOFIN has</p><p>worlds largestuni t in op erat ion</p><p>High Reliabi l i ty</p><p>Suppor t and</p><p>Commitment to</p><p>Technical</p><p>Advancement</p><p>Rushd, a SABIC Affiliate in Saudi Arabia has been completed. These</p><p>two designs represent the largest single train propane</p><p>dehydrogenation facilities in the world.</p><p>Lummus completed the basic design of a 500 KMTA C3CATOFIN</p><p>Unit for Kazakhstan Petrochemical Industries Inc. (KPI) in</p><p>Kazakhstan.</p><p>Lummus completed the design for a 545 KMTA C3CATOFIN Unit</p><p>for PL Propylene in Houston, USA. The Plant started up in 2010 andmet or exceeded all performance guarantees. This unit represents the</p><p>worlds largest propane dehydrogenation unit in operation.</p><p>Lummus has two operating units at 455,000 MTA propylene designcapacity. The Saudi Polyolefins (SPC) plant for production of</p><p>455,000 MTA of propylene came on stream in the first quarter of</p><p>2004. The Advanced Polypropylene Co. (APPC) plant came on</p><p>stream in February 2008. The plants continue to run above 100%</p><p>capacity.</p><p>The CATOFIN/CATADIENE dehydrogenation technology has</p><p>several hundreds of years of operating experience throughout the</p><p>world. These plant operations support the capability to exceed</p><p>capacity, overall yield, and catalyst life.</p><p>On-stream factors exceeding 97% are routinely achieved in</p><p>commercial operations. This is reflected in reduced plant size andmaintenance costs compared to competing technologies. TheCATADIENE process has no significant fouling problems and design</p><p>throughput is quickly achieved after a startup. The process uses fixedbed reactors containing a robust Sd-Chemie catalyst that is resistant</p><p>to the typical feed contaminants. Therefore, no feed treatmentfacilities are required for the CATADIENE process.</p><p>Effective technology transfer is a critical factor in the success of a</p><p>large project. Lummus is committed to supporting its licensees</p><p>through the entire life cycle of a project to ensure that the technologytransfer is successful. In addition to our process technology, Lummus</p><p>offers advanced process control, computer simulators, operating</p><p>training, detailed engineering, and start-up services.</p><p>CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene 2</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 5/22</p><p>Introduction</p><p>Lummus</p><p>technologies,</p><p>experience, and</p><p>capabil i t ies</p><p>ensure a</p><p>suc cessful project</p><p>Sud-Chemie, the exclusive supplier of the proprietary CATOFIN and</p><p>CATADIENE catalysts, and Lummus in its role as licensor, are firmly</p><p>committed to the continued development of the dehydrogenationtechnologies.</p><p>Because of its commercial success and the cost savings resulting from</p><p>its high yields, on-stream availability, and lower investment cost, theLummus dehydrogenation processes are the technology of choice in</p><p>todays market for the dehydrogenation of propane or butanes. The</p><p>selection of the CATADIENE technology will be instrumental in</p><p>attaining the financial and project goals targeted by your company.</p><p>CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene 3</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 6/22</p><p>Technology Overview</p><p>CATADIENE Using the CATADIENE process, butadiene can be produced from</p><p>Technology either a butane rich or a mixed butane/butylene stream.</p><p>OverviewThe processing scheme for the CATADIENE butadiene process is</p><p>shown in the overall process flow schematic and consists of thefollowing steps:</p><p>1. Dehydrogenation of the butane to make butadiene</p><p>2. Compression of reactor effluent</p><p>3. Recovery and purification of the product</p><p>The technology utilizes cyclic fixed-bed reactors with continuous</p><p>production and has demonstrated safe and reliable operation with</p><p>hundreds of years of operating experience. Features of the technology</p><p>include:</p><p> High tolerance to C4feed impurities</p><p> No halide (chlorine) facilities needed for reheat Inexpensive and robust catalyst No catalyst losses</p><p> Demonstrated catalyst life No hydrogen recirculation No steam dilution Technically sound and commercially proven process</p><p>equipment No significant fouling problems Minimum time required to achieve design throughput after a</p><p>shut-down Robust reactor design and internals Low sulfur injection (15 wppm on reactor feed)</p><p>The current CATADIENE design includes feedback from actual plantoperations, which results in improved reliability, operation and</p><p>efficiency.</p><p>CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene 4</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 7/22</p><p>Technology Overview</p><p>Process Flow</p><p>Schematic</p><p>CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene 5</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 8/22</p><p>Technical Information</p><p>Feedstock and</p><p>ProductSpecifications</p><p>The CATADIENE unit can be designed to process a wide variety of</p><p>feedstocks. A typical feedstock has the following characteristics:</p><p>Butane Feed</p><p>Component Wt%</p><p>N-Propane 3.0</p><p>N-Butane 94.5</p><p>C5+ 2.5</p><p>Lower purity butane streams can be handled in the CATADIENE</p><p>unit. However, any increase in the level of C3 and C5 impurities</p><p>would increase the amount of offgas since these impurities are</p><p>cracked to lighter hydrocarbons.</p><p>Butadiene extraction unit can be designed to produce the followinghigh purity product. The raffinate from the extraction unit, consistingof unconverted butane and butylenes is recycled to the CATADIENEunit for ultimate conversion to butadiene.</p><p>1,3-Butadiene Product</p><p>1,3 Butadiene 99.7 wt%</p><p>Propadiene &lt; 5 ppm by wt</p><p>1,2 Butadiene &lt; 20 ppm by wt</p><p>Acetylenes &lt; 20 ppm by wt</p><p>NMP (BASF solvent) &lt; 5 ppm by wt</p><p>By-Products</p><p>Offgas from the recovery section is produced as a by-product and is</p><p>normally burned as fuel. A significant portion of the hydrogen in the</p><p>offgas can be recovered at high purity in a pressure swing adsorption</p><p>(PSA) unit.</p><p>CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene 6</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 9/22</p><p>Technical Information</p><p>Process</p><p>Description and</p><p>Process FlowDiagram</p><p>The process description provided in this section can be followed more</p><p>clearly by referring to the Process Flow Schematic in the Technology</p><p>Overview section.</p><p>Process Overview</p><p>The CATADIENE process converts normal butane and n-butenes tobutadiene by successive dehydrogenation in a single step operationemploying a chromia-alumina catalyst. The unconverted normalbutane is recycled to the reactor section so that butadiene is the onlynet product. Operating conditions for the process are selected tooptimize the relationship among selectivity, conversion, and energy</p><p>consumption in the temperature and pressure range of 575-625oC and</p><p>0.14-0.24 bar absolute. Side reactions produce light hydrocarbongases in small quantities, along with hydrocarbons heavier than thefeed (polymer). The heaviest of these hydrocarbons are deposited ascoke on the catalyst.</p><p>A key feature of the process is that the heat is absorbed from the</p><p>catalyst bed by the reaction as dehydrogenation proceeds, gradually</p><p>reducing the temperature of the catalyst bed. This temperaturereduction, coupled with coke deposited on the catalyst decreases its</p><p>ability to produce the desired products. To remove coke and to restore</p><p>the necessary heat to the catalyst bed, periodic reheat of the catalyst</p><p>with hot air is required.</p><p>The process is carried out in a train of fixed-bed reactors that operateon a cyclic basis and in a defined sequence to permit continuousuninterrupted flow of the major process streams. In one completecycle, hydrocarbon vapors are dehydrogenated and the reactor is then</p><p>purged with steam and blown with air to reheat the catalyst and burnoff the small amount of coke that is deposited during the reactioncycle. These steps are followed by an evacuation and reduction andthen another cycle is begun. Cycle timing instrumentation sequencesthe actuation of hydraulically operated valves to control the operation.</p><p>The system is suitably interlocked to ensure safe operation of thevalves in sequence and prevent mixing of air and hydrocarbon gas.</p><p>CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene 7</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 10/22</p><p>Technical Information</p><p>Process Descri ption</p><p>Reaction Section</p><p>In the reaction section, butane is converted to butadiene while passing</p><p>through a catalyst bed.</p><p>Fresh butane feed is combined with recycle butane from the mixersettler unit. The total feed is then brought to reaction temperature inthe gas fired charge heater and sent to the reactors.</p><p>Non-selective cracking of hydrocarbons is minimized by injectingfuel gas during the reheat portion of the cycle to keep the heater outlet</p><p>temperature as low as possible. Hot effluent from the reactors flows toa pre-quench tower and the main quench tower where the vapor iscooled by in-direct contact with a circulating quench water stream.Make-up quench water stream may be added intermittently tomaintain system inventory.</p><p>In the reactors, the hydrocarbon on-stream period takes place at 0.14-</p><p>0.24 bar absolute pressure. While the system is still under vacuum,</p><p>the reactor is thoroughly purged with steam, thereby stripping residual</p><p>hydrocarbons from the catalyst and reactor into the recovery system.</p><p>Reheat of the catalyst takes place at slightly above atmospheric</p><p>pressure. Reheat air is supplied typically by a gas turbine or aircompressor and heated to the required temperature in a direct-firedduct burner before passing through the reactors. The reheat air serves</p><p>to restore both the temperature profile of the bed to its initial on-stream condition and catalyst activity, in addition to burning the cokeoff the catalyst. The reheat air leaving the reactors is used to generate</p><p>steam in a waste heat boiler.</p><p>When the reheat of a reactor is complete, the reactor is re-evacuated</p><p>before the next on-stream period. Prior to introducing butane feed,</p><p>hydrogen rich offgas is introduced to the reactor for a short time to</p><p>CATADIENE Butane Dehydrogenation for Butadiene 8</p></li><li><p>7/22/2019 Butadien Production Scribd File.pdf</p><p> 11/22</p><p>Technical Information</p><p>remove absorbed oxygen from the catalyst bed. This reduction step</p><p>decreases the loss of feed by combustion and restores the chrome on</p><p>the catalyst to its active state.</p><p>The reheat air stream leaving the reactors flows to the waste heat</p><p>boiler which generates and superheats high pressure steam.</p><p>Automatic Process Control</p><p>The reactor system consists of a train of reactors operating in a cyclicfashion. The cycle results in continuous uninterrupted flow ofhydrocarbon and air through the reactor system. The process streamsto the individual reactors are controlled by hydraulically-operated</p><p>valves. A central cycle timing device controls the operation of thesevalves. The cycle...</p></li></ul>