BUS815 L10-11Decision Making Leadership Slides

  • View
    8

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

decision making lesson

Text of BUS815 L10-11Decision Making Leadership Slides

  • 1

    Leadership & Decision Making

    BUS815 Week 10/11

  • 2

    Leadership Theories

    Leaders move things forward

  • 3

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Management is the advantageous exercise of

    an organisations resources (Brooks 1999)

    the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups (Koontz in McKenna p28)

    Role of management is to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly (Schermerhorn Ch 11)

  • 4

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership

    process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared efforts

    Formal leadership Informal leadership

  • 5

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Formal leadership

    exerted by persons appointed to or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations

    Informal leadership exerted by persons who become influential

    because they have special skills that meet the resource needs of others

  • 6

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Approaches to leadership

    Trait and behavioral theory perspectives Situational contingency perspectives Transformational and charismatic perspectives

  • 7

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management?

    Trait perspectives assume that traits play a central role in

    differentiating between leaders and non-leaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes.

  • 8

  • 9

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Behavioral theories

    assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes

    Focuses on leader behaviors rather than traits

  • 10

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Michigan leadership studies

    Employee-centered supervisors Place strong emphasis on subordinates welfare Also know as human relations oriented

    Production-centered supervisors Place strong emphasis on getting the work done Also known as task oriented

  • 11

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Ohio State leadership studies

    Consideration Sensitive to peoples feelings and making things pleasant

    for the followers

    Initiating structure Concerned with spelling out the task requirements and

    clarifying other aspects of the work agenda

  • 12

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership Grid

    Developed by Blake and Mouton Built on the Ohio U work - particularly the dual

    emphasis of consideration and initiating structure Measured people along those two dimensions and

    plotted them on a 9 x 9 Grid (matrix) reflecting levels of concern for people and concern for task

  • 13

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership Grid

    The aim was to become a 9,9 manager, someone with a team management style

    Well accepted in industry in the 1960s and 70s Widely used in IBM, a world leading organisation

    at the time, and a user of teams and matrix structures

  • 14

    What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership Grid Difficulties

    Same as for Ohio work model is based on two independent dimensions

    Are they independent? Is it possible to be maximally concerned for both at the

    same time? Do we tend to emphasise one over the other at different

    times?

  • 15

    What are situational contingency approaches to leadership?

    The previous behavioural models considered leadership as a set of behaviours for all situations

    Situation/Contingency-based leadership models start from the belief that leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies

    The effects of leader traits are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies

  • 16

    What are situational contingency approaches to leadership?

    So, if you are you and cannot change there will situations where you will be a good leader and others where you will not. It depends on the match between your traits and behaviours and the situation you are in.

    Situation/Contingency models set out to define the situation that the manager is in and then either the managers style (to determine fit) or the required style (to enable managers to adapt their style)

  • 17

    What are situational contingency approaches to leadership?

    There are a range of approaches. The major theories are: Fiedler House Hersey and Blanchard Graen

  • 18

    What are situational contingency approaches to leadership?

    Hersey and Blanchard There is no single best way to lead. The critical situational contingency is follower

    readiness - the extent to which people (followers) have the ability and willingness to accomplish a particular task(s)

    Ability and willingness are two separate dimensions

    Four readiness states are identified based on different combinations of high and low levels of the two attributes

  • 19

    What are situational contingency approaches to leadership?

    Hersey and Blanchard Leadership is again about two dimensions - one

    about people and relationships and one about tasks and productivity

    Each of the four types of Readiness have a matching Leader Behaviour

  • 20

  • 21

    What are situational contingency approaches to leadership?

    Hersey and Blanchard People can develop in terms of ability and

    willingness. Leadership style can adapt to compensate. For example R1 to R3 implies Telling to Participating

  • 22

  • 23

    What are situational contingency approaches to leadership?

    Romance of leadership is where people attribute romantic, almost

    magical, qualities to leadership

    Benefits of leadership? For the manager/unit For the company

  • 24

    What is implicit leadership?

    Inference-based Emphasizes leadership effectiveness as inferred

    by perceived group/organizational performance outcomes

  • 25

    What is implicit leadership?

    Recognition-based is leadership effectiveness based on how well a

    person fits characteristics of a good or effective leader

  • 26

    What are charismatic/transformational perspectives?

    Charismatic leaders Leaders who by force of their personal abilities,

    are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers

  • 27

    What are charismatic/transformational perspectives?

    Conger and Kanungos three-stage charismatic leadership model Stage 1: the leader critically evaluates the status

    quo Stage 2: the leader formulates and articulates future

    goals and a idealized future vision. Stage 3: the leader shows how the goals and vision

    can be achieved, emphasizing innovative and unusual means.

  • 28

    Transactional leadership Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for

    achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers

    What are charismatic/transformational perspectives?

  • 29

    What are charismatic/transformational perspectives?

    Leader-follower exchanges involve: Use of contingent rewards. Active management by exception. Passive management by exception. Abdicating responsibilities and avoiding decisions.

  • 30

    What are charismatic/transformational perspectives?

    Transformational leadership Leaders broaden and elevate followers interests,

    generate awareness and acceptance of the groups mission, and stir followers to look beyond self-interests

  • 31

    What are charismatic/transformational perspectives?

    Dimensions of transformational leadership Charisma Inspiration Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration

  • 32

    What are charismatic/transformational perspectives?

    Can people be trained in the new leadership? People can be trained to adopt new leadership

    approaches. Leaders can devise improvement programs to

    address their weaknesses and work with trainers to develop their leadership skills.

    Leaders can be trained in charismatic skills.

  • 33

    Emerging Leadership Perspectives

  • 34

    What is integrative leadership?

    A range of theories about leadership which extend the previous models in various ways. Full Range Leadership Theory - uses nine dimensions

    covering both transformational and transactional leadership, emphasizing contextual variables

    Shared Leadership - leadership is owned by more than one person in a situation

    GLOBE, Cross-cultural Leadership - incorporates cultural factors

    Leadership at the strategic apex

  • 35

    What is moral leadership?

    Moral leadership A range of leadership approaches that have

    gained more prominence recently due to ethical failures such as Enron

    Ethical leadership Authentic leadership Servant leadership Spiritual leadership

  • 36

    Decision Making

    Leaders are decisive

  • 37

    Decision Making Defined

    Decision making is a conscious process of making choices among one or more alternatives, with the intention of moving toward some desired state of a