BRONZE = COPPER + TIN

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BRONZE = COPPER + TIN . STATUES AND ORNAMENTS. CARBON DIOXIDE. TURNS BLUE LITMUS RED, WHICH MEANS IT IS AN ACID . THE WATER CONTAINS CALCIUM SALTS WHICH TURN INTO LIMESCALE WHEN HEATED. THIS STICKS TO THE PIPE. LIMESTONE. Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu. IONIC BOND. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>BRONZE = COPPER + TIN STATUES AND ORNAMENTSCARBON DIOXIDETURNS BLUE LITMUS RED, WHICH MEANS IT IS AN ACID </p> <p>THE WATER CONTAINS CALCIUM SALTS WHICH TURN INTO LIMESCALE WHEN HEATED. THIS STICKS TO THE PIPE.LIMESTONECa, Mg, Zn, Cu</p> <p>IONIC BONDONE ATOM TRANSFERS ELECTRONS TO ANOTHER CREATING + AND IONS WHICH ATTRACT EACH OTHERORANGE JUICE, VINEGAR, SOUR MILK, COLA, RAINTOOTHPASTE, BREAD SODA, MILK OF MAGNESIAWASHING SODA</p> <p>CARBONNITROGENTO STOP THE INK SEEPING INTO THE WATER BELOW ITTHE INK IS SOLUBLE IN THE WATER AND TRAVELS UP THE PAPER WITH IT.</p> <p>THERE IS AN INCREASE IN THE ENERGY OF THE GAS MOLECULES AND THEY LEAVE THE SOLUTION.160</p> <p>CO2H2OWATER EVAPORATION DIFFERS FROM PLACE TO PLACE</p> <p>AIR IS DRAWN THROUGH THE LIMEWATER .</p> <p>THE LIMEWATER GOES MILKY WHITE</p> <p>THE LIQUID WILL TURN BLUE COBALT CHLORIDE TO PINK</p> <p>SETTLEMENT TANKSALLOWS SOLIDS AND SUSPENDED PARTICLES TO SETTLE TO THE BOTTOM OF THE TANKS.</p> <p>FILTRATIONWATER IS FILTERED THROUGH BEDS OF SAND TO REMOVE SUSPENDED PARTICLESCHLORINATIONCHLORINE IS ADDED TO KILL HARMFUL BACTERIA IN THE WATERFLUORIDATIONPREVENTS TOOTH DECAY</p> <p>WEAR PROTECTIVE GEAR WHEN DOIG CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTSONLY USE EQUIPMENT WHEN TOLD TO BY YOUR TEACHER.</p> <p>ADD POTASSIUM METAL TO A BASIN OF WATER. THE POTASSIUM WILL FLOAT ON THE WATER AND REACT SO VIOLENTLY THAT IT WILL CATCH FIRE. A FIZZING NOISE WILL BE HEARD AS HYDROGEN GAS IS PRODUCED.</p> <p>ALKALI METALSTHEY REACT WITH OXYGEN TO FORM OXIDES</p> <p>TOUCH A PIECE OF UNIVERSAL </p> <p>INDICATOR PAPER AGAINST THE </p> <p>LEMON. COMPARE THE COLOUR TO PH CHART. </p> <p>ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT WHICH HAVE</p> <p> DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF NEUTRONSPAINTING, OILING OR GREASINGOXYGEN OR WATER</p> <p>ADD MORE COPPER SULPHATE AND STIR TO DISSOLVE NO MORE COPPER SULPHATE WILL DISSOLVE IN THE SOLUTION</p> <p>MANGANESE DIOXIDEHYDROGEN PEROXIDE DECOMPOSING TO GIVE OXYGEN GASCaCl2 + H2O + CO2 </p> <p>PLASTIC WASTE IS UNSIGHTLY IN THE ENVIRONMENTPLASTIC WASTE IS EXPENSIVE TO DISPOSE OF.CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN BY MICRO-ORGANISMSMADE FROM RENEWABLE MATERIALS</p> <p>WATERIT WOULD TURN BLUE COBALT CHLORIDE TO PINKLIMEWATERCARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE BURNING WAX TURNS IT MILKY WHITE COAL</p> <p>AN ELEMENT IS A SUBSTANCE WHICH CANNOT BE BROKEN INTO ANYTHING SIMPLER BY CHEMICAL MEANS.A COMPOUND IS TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS WHICH ARE CHEMICALLY COMBINED </p> <p>METALS NON-METALS </p> <p>MAGNESIUM IS NOW CHEMICALLY COMBINED WITH OXYGENFROM OXYGEN IN THE AIRMAGNESIUM OXIDE, MgO</p> <p>TWO OR MORE ATOMS CHEMICALLY COMBINEDCOVALENT BONDING</p> <p>THE FORCE OF ATTRACTION BETWEEN OPPOSITELY CHARGED IONS IN A COMPOUND IS CALLED AN IONIC BOND . SODIUM CHLORIDE</p> <p>SHAKE THE WATER SAMPLE WITH SOAP FLAKES. THE HARD WATER REQUIRES A LOT OF SOAP TO PRODUCE A LATHER.CALCIUM HYDROGEN CARBONATE</p> <p>SOFT.THE RESIN WILL HAVE REMOVED ALL OF THE IONS WHICH CAUSE HARDNESS. TEST THE WATER SAMPLE WITH SOAP FLAKES. IT WILL REQUIRE VERY LITTLE SOAP TO PRODUCE A LATHER.</p> <p>CONDUCTS ELECTRICITY, MgO DOES NOTMg IS MALLEABLE, MgO IS NOT</p> <p>DISSOLVES THE LIMESTONEACIDS IN RAIN REACT WITH THE LIMESTONE</p> <p>SANDSALT OR WATER</p> <p>SOFTHARDNESS LEFT IN TEST TUBE ACHLORINATIONFILTRATION</p> <p>HEATELECTRIC</p> <p>TUBE ATO REMOVE OXYGEN FROM WATERTO PREVENT OXYGEN GETTING BACK INTO TUBEOXYGEN NEEDED FOR RUSTING</p> <p>18</p> <p>LEAVE TO COOL</p> <p>CRYSTALS WILL FORM</p> <p>FILTER THE CRYSTALS</p> <p>Solution of copper sulphateCrystals forming</p> <p>A SCALE FROM 0 TO 14 USED TO MEASURE THE </p> <p>DEGREE OF ACIDITYUSING A PH METERGASTRIC JUICEBLOOD41</p> <p>ELECTROLYSISTO IMPROVE ITS</p> <p> CONDUCTIVITY42</p> <p>OXYGENRELIGHTS A GLOWING SPLINT</p> <p>HYDROGENBURNS WITH A LOUD POP2 HYDROGEN AND 1 OXYGEN</p> <p>HYDROGENHYDROCHLORIC ACID</p> <p>CALCIUMCOPPERCALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, ZINC, COPPER</p> <p>WEAR GOGGLES</p> <p>SULPHUR DIOXIDECAUSES ACID RAIN</p> <p>NO DEFINITE SHAPELIQUIDS HAVE A DEFINITE VOLUME</p> <p>BUNSEN BURNER/ CRUCIBLETRIPOD STAND/ CLAY TRIANGLEConical flaskFilter funnelFilter paperBeaker of dirty water</p> <p>13 6 = 7ISOTOPES </p> <p>MEASURING THE VOLUME OF ACID</p> <p>NEEDED FOR NEUTRALISATIONA SALT AND WATER ARE FORMED</p> <p>REFRIDGERATIONFIRE EXTINGUISHERS</p> <p>BURNS WITH A LOUD POP</p> <p>Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2</p> <p>HYDROGEN PEROXIDEMANGANESE DIOXIDE</p> <p>A CHEMICAL WHICH SPEEDS UP A REACTION WITHOUT BEING USED UP ITSELF.RESULT;RED LITMUS DID NOT CHANGE, </p> <p>BLUE LITMUS TURNED REDCONCLUSION: CARBON DIOXIDE IS AN ACID</p> <p>DOES NOT FORM SUDS WITH SOAPCALCIUMHARD TO FORM SUDS WHEN WASHINGBLOCKS HOT WATER PIPESBLOCKS HEATING ELEMENTSPROVIDES CALCIUM FOR BONES</p> <p>DISTILLATIONLIEBIG CONDENSER</p> <p>BTASTE IT</p> <p>COVALENTATOMS SHARE ELECTRONS</p> <p>CARBON DIOXIDE</p> <p>SODIUM LOSES AN ELECTRON</p> <p>CHLORINE GAINS AN ELECTRONELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTIONPotassium chloride</p> <p>AN ALLOY IS A MIXTURE OF METALSBRASSIS USED FOR ORNAMENTAL PURPOSES, DOOR HANDLES ETC.</p> <p>HYDROCHLORIC ACIDCALCIUM CARBONATE</p> <p>CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, ZINC, COPPER</p> <p>ELECTRON (-1), PROTON (+1)ELECTRON (1/1840 AMU), PROTON (1AMU)</p> <p>SAFETY GLASSESPERSPEX SHEET</p> <p>PAINTING, OILING, GREASING, ELECTROPLATINGKEEPS OXYGEN AND WATER AWAY FROM THE METAL</p> <p>A FUEL MADE FROM DECAYED ANIMALS AND PLANTSMETHANE</p> <p>WHITERED TURNS BLUEMgO IS A BASE</p> <p>3.6 mg/ 100g waterIt reduces the solubility of oxygen in the waterRISING TEMPERATURES WILL REDUCE </p> <p>THE AMOUNT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN THE WATER THIS WILL REDUCE THE NUMBERS OF ANIMALS </p> <p>AND PLANTS LIVING IN THE OCEANS AND RIVERS. </p> <p>THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM.ISOTOPES ARE ATOMS WHICH DIFFER ONLY BY THE NUMBER</p> <p> OF NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS</p> <p>ALKALINE EARTH METALSBECAUSE THEY HAVE EIGHT ELECTRONS</p> <p>ON THEIR OUTER SHELL</p> <p>AN IONIC BOND IS THE FORCE OF ATTRACTION </p> <p>BETWEEN OPPOSITELY CHARGED IONS IN A COMPOUND.</p> <p>TABLE SALT AND COPPER SULPHATETHEY CONDUCT ELECTRICITYSO THAT THEY CAN BE FREE TO MOVE ABOUT AND</p> <p> CARRY CHARGE</p> <p>LEMON JUICE, SODA WATERTOOTHPASTE, LIMEWATERPURE WATER</p> <p>Water Chromatography paperTest Tube The water soaks up along the paper and carries the ink with it. As it does the different colours in the ink separate out because they travel at different speeds up the paper</p> <p>THE INK FROM THE MARKER WITH A MIXTURE OF COLOURS WILL</p> <p>HAVE SEPARATED INTO A ITS DIFFERENT COLOURS. </p> <p>CRUDE OILTHEY CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN BY </p> <p>LIVING THINGS</p> <p>GRADUATED CYLINDERPIPETTE OR BURETTE</p> <p>FLOAT ON WATERCUT EASILY WITH A KNIFEREACT VIOLENT WITH WATER</p> <p>A BOND WHERE THE ELECTRONS ARE SHARED BETWEEN THE ATOMS IS CALLED A COVALENT BOND.</p> <p>SODIUM CHLORIDECRYSTALLINE SOLIDS HAVE HIGH BOILING POINTSCRYSTALLINE SOLIDS HAVE REGULAR SHAPES</p> <p>NaOHSODIUM HYDROXIDE (NaOH) </p> <p>LIEBIG CONDENSERXPURE WATERSALT</p> <p>A CONCENTRATED SOLUTION CONTAINS A LOT OF SOLUTE </p> <p>DISSOLVED IN THE SOLVENT.A DILUTE SOLUTION CONTAINS A SMALL AMOUNT OF SOLUTE </p> <p>DISSOLVED IN SOLUTE.</p> <p>01020307080100203040507080</p> <p>0102030708010020304050708060</p> <p>60 DEGREESTHE SOLUBILITY INCREASES AS THE TEMPERATURE </p> <p>INCREASES</p> <p>IS A SUBSTANCE WHICH CANNOT BE </p> <p>BROKEN INTO ANYTHING SIMPLER BY CHEMICAL MEANSTWO OR MORE ELEMENTS WHICH ARE CHEMICALLY</p> <p>COMBINED.</p> <p>We placed small pieces of universal indicator paper on a white tile and put a drop of each of the solutions being tested, in turn, on each of the test papers. We </p> <p>noted the colour change and find the pH from the colour chart.ORANGE JUICEVINEGAR</p> <p>HClCALCIUM CARBONATE</p> <p>MORE DENSE THAN AIRNO EFFECT ON THE RED LITMUSTURNS BLUE LITMUS RED</p> <p>REFRIDGERATIONFIRE EXTINGUISHERS</p> <p>PLACE EQUAL VOLUMES OF A &amp; B IN</p> <p>TWO TEST TUBES. ADD TWO DROPS OF</p> <p>SOAP SOLUTION TO BOTH AND SHAKE.</p> <p>SEE WHICH FORMS PERMANENT SUDS.A WONT FORM SUDS B WILL FORM SUDS EASILY</p> <p>CALCIUM IONS CALCIUM SALTS</p> <p>SETTLINGFILTRATIONCHLORINATIONFLUORIDATION</p> <p>FILTRATION TAKES OUT ALL VISIBLE DIRT</p> <p>Atoms of the same element which have </p> <p>different numbers of neutrons.Hydrogen peroxide and manganese dioxideManganese dioxide</p> <p>Sulphur dioxideIt reacts with it causing it to wear away.</p> <p>Use the same volume/strength of acid each time.CALCIUM, magnesium, zinc, copper</p> <p>2, 8, 8, 1CaCO3 + H2O</p> <p>To increase the conductivity of the </p> <p> water.Burns with a loud popThere are 2 H atoms for every O atom in water</p> <p>Burette Pipette Release the acid from the burette, using the tap, into the base in the conical flask. Continue until the indicator in the conical flask changes colour. The volume of acidreleased can be read from the side of the burette. This is the volume required to neutralise the base.</p> <p>Hydrochloric acidSodium hydroxideHCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O</p> <p>It moves up the paper with the water and the colours separate from each other. The spot will move with the water level and show no separation</p> <p>They need a container with a lid to contain them.They do not flow</p> <p>The gas will take up more space when hotThe oxygen is used up. This causes the decrease. Remains Steady because no more oxygen left.Nitrogen No proper measurement markings on the bell jar.</p> <p>any one from: beryllium/ magnesium/ calcium/ strontium/ barium/ radium </p> <p>change of colour/ becomes flakey </p> <p>change of texture/ becomes softer looses strength tarnish/ rust (i) calcium chloride/ drying agent labelled/ clearly named in text (ii) boiled (de-gassed) water/ water with no air labelled/ clearly named in text oil labelled/ clearly named in text stoppers not required [no diagram/s deduct 3 or 6 marks] </p>