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    A M P UR I A S (Barcelona)t. 43 , 1981, pagines 113- 170

    A Study of the Bronze Age Metalworkfrom the Iberian Peninsula in the Brit ish MuseumBy RICHARDJ. HARRISONand

    PAULT. CRADDOCKwith an appendix by MICHAELJ. HUGHES"

    The collections of prehistoric bronzemetalwork discussed here have accumula-ted in a fortuitous manner for over125 years, with a succession of gifts largeaild small, purchases, and transfers fromother collections. The opportunity arose tocatalogue and examine the entire collec-tion, and to make it available for inclu-sion into the synthetic works that are nowactively in progress.

    The year 1849 marks the acquisition ofthe first prehistoric bronze implementfrom Spain, donated by Mr. S. P. Pratt,F. R. S., and published the same year byMr. James Yates. For a long time thisdouble-looped palstave was one of theFew published prehistoric bronzes knownErom the Peninsula, and it has been illus-trated many times since then. It has theadded interest of being the only palstaveto be recorded as hafted, since it was dis-covered in sailcient coa1 workings in An-dalusia~,attached to a straight wooderihandle.But the largest number of pieces camefrom the famous collection amased by

    the Very Reverend Canon Greenwell ofDurham Cathedral. He was actively co-llecting bronzes in the latter part othe nineteenth century, and through hisfriendly contacts with Horace Sandars, hewas able to acquire type-specimens fromthe Iberian Peninsula. The part of hiscollection containing these items wasbought by the American financier JamesPierpont Morgan, and presented outrightto the Museum as a gift in 1909.

    Other important pieces were acquiredin 1964 when the Wellcome Collection waspresented to the Museum. The includeda dozen Early Bronze Age pieces fromGeorge Bonsor's old excavations aroundCarmona (Prov. Sevilla) in the period1890-1910, and which seem to have comefrom the site of El Acebuchal. Al1 of themcarry bold but illegible catalogue num-bers written in Bonsor's own hand.

    The interest of the collection lies inits range of types and the secure prove-nances for many of the pieces. Not in-cluded in this study are the Siret Collec-tion of antiquities, purchased in 1889, and

    * Richard J. Hamison: Dept. of Classics and Arihaeolagy University of Bristol; Paul T. Craddock: Re-aearch Laboratory, Bri tich M u s e u m , London; Michael J . Hughes: Research Laboratory, British Museurn, London.This manirscript was submitt ed in . Spring, t977, and there has been no opportunity to revise it since then .8

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    114 R. J. HARRISON, P. T. CRADDOCK AND M. J. HUGHES

    Fig. 1 . - Location of al1 provenanced bronzes. Tlie numbers are th e same as those i n the Catalogue.

    fully published by the Sirets' themselves A ) Catalogue and Figures.in 1887, nor the Iron Age finds. The co- B ) Tables of Analyses.llection of Bronze Age Gold from the Pe- C) Discussion,ninsula has been recently published afresh(Almagro Gorbea, 1974; Harrison 1977; The present location of al1 the piecesHawkes 1971), thus making al1 the Bronze is in the Department of Prehistoric andAge metalwork widely accesible. Romano-British Antiquities, of the British

    The paper is divided into three parts: Museum, London WClB 3DG.

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    The catalogue is arranged in a stan-dard format, a nd one set of numbers areused throughout. The num bers of the pie-ces are retained both on the Figures andin the Tables of Analyses.

    Abbreviations used in the Catalogue:Al1 measurements are in centimetres.L.: Length.Th.: Thickness.W.: Width.Registration Numbers:WG. : William Greenwell Collection.

    (Al1 other Registration Numbers followthe standard British Museum system).

    No. 1. (Fig. 2, no. 1)Provenance : Prov. Huelva.Registration: WG 909.Donor: Greenwell Collection, presentedby J. P. Morgan.Description: Flat ase, cast in an openmould with small casting irregularities onal1 surfaces. The cutting edge has beenground and hammered, and the butt, sidesand blade have been blunted at a later date.Hump-backed section. with squared sides.Irregular green patina. Good condition.Copper.Size: L. 12.5; W. 4.9; Th. 1.3.Unpublished.Comments: Pre-Millaran Type, c. 3000 -2500 B.C. One of a small number of thirdmillennium copper ases of this type from

    S.W. Spain.No. 2. (Fig. 2, no. 2)

    Provenance: Moguer, Prov. Huelva.Registration: WG 908.

    Donor: Greenwell Collection, presentedby J. P. Morgan.Description: Tbin flat axe with a rectan-gular cross section, cast in an open rnould.One face is covered with casting irregula-rities, the other has been roughly smoothed.Tbe butt and cutting edge are both finelyground on one face, and covcred by a darkgreen-brown patina. Arsenical copper.

    Size: L. 11.1; W. 4.1 ; Th. 0.6:Unpublished.Comments: Millaran Type, c. 2500 -2000 B.C.

    No. 3. (Fig. 2, no. 3)Provenance: Spain.Registration: WG 911.Donor: Greenwell Collection, presentedby J. P. Morgan.Description: Flat axe with squared sides,lightly hammered a t butt, and witli a bluntedcutting edge. Blade edge chipped. One facewith finely pitted surface (from casting inan open mould), tbe other hammered andground to a smooth finish. Even, dark brownpatina, in excellent condition. Copper.Size: L. 11.95; W. 5.55; Th. 1.0.Unpublished.Comments: Millaran, or Earliest BronzeAge, c. 2200 - 1800 B.C.

    No. 4. (Fig. 2, no. 4 )Provenance: Prov. Jan.Registration: WG 922.Donor: Greenwell Collection, presentedby J. P. Morgan.Description: Thick, rectangular-sectionedaxe with highly concave surfaces. Thins at

    butt, roughly worked cutting edge, bluntedinto an assymetrical sbape (? through use).Pitted surface, bright green corrosion onone face.Size: L. 10.8; W. 3.1; Th. 1.8.Unpublished.

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    116 R. J. HARRISON, P. T. CRADDOCK AND M. J . HUGHES

    Fig. 2. - Flat Axes (Pre-Beaker).1 , Prov. Huelua; 2, Xo~kc r ,Huc1i.a: 3, eSpain; 4.6, Prov. Jan

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    A STUDY OF THE BRO NZE AGE METAL

    Comments: Probably Pre-Millaran or Mi-Ilaran, c. 3000 - 2000 B.C. (Compare with num-ber 5). Profile is similar to axes from theAlentejo in S. Portugal (Blance 1971, Taf. 24,nos. 1-2). but those have noticeably thinnersections than nos. 4 and 5 here. Copper.No. 5. (Fig. 2, no. 5)

    Provenance: Prov. Jan.Registration: WG 921.Donor: Greenwell Collection, presentedby J. P. Morgan.Description : Thick, rectangular-sectionedcopper axe with slightly concave sides. Thin-ner towards butt, with a roughly hammeredcutting edge, blunted into an assymetriealshapc. Butt roughly finished, but main faces

    are ground smooth. Signs of working on oneface, with vertical s tress lines. Copper.Size: L. 10.4; W. 2.8; Th. 1.8.Unpublished.Comments: Probably Pre-Millaran or Mi-Ilaran, c. 3000-2000 B.C. (Compare withno. 4.)

    No. 6. (Fig. 2, no. 6)Provenance : Prov. Jan.Registration: WG 907.Donor: Greenwell Collection, presented

    by J. P. Morgan.Description: Heavy, square-sectioned flataxe. with a very thick, rough, unfinishedbutt. Both sides havc heen heavily hamme-red, raising two low flanges. The cuttingedge is damaged. The original patina was adark, even green, which only survives inpatches, and which was largely flaked offwhen the piece was subject to heavy ham-mering of recent date. The flanges and ham-mer-marks are not original features. Copper.Size: L. 12.8; W. 3.9; Th. 1.85.Unpublished.Comments: Pre-Millaran or Millaran,c. 3000- 2000 B.C.

    No. 7. (Fig. 3, no. 7)Provenance : Prov. JanRegistration: WG 915.

    Donor: Greenwell Collection, presentedby J. P. Morgan.Description: Thick, rectangular-sectionedflat axe, with a shallow, irregular groove

    down each face. One face and side have anetwork of fine surface irregularities, cau-sed by casting in an open mould. The otherface and edge are ground smooth. The buttand cutting edges have both been recentlyhamered. Even, deep brown patina, excellentcondition. Arsenical copper.Size: L. 15.8; W. 5.3; Th. 1.45.Unpublished.Comments: Probably related to the EarlyArgaric triangular-shaped axes, c. 1800 - 1500B.C.

    No. 8. (Fig. 3, no. 8)Provenance: Villacarillo, Prov. Jan.Registration: 1909. 7-14. 4.Donor: Purchased.Description: Flat rectangular-sectionedaxe used as a wedge in antiquity. Very hea-vily hammered at butt, deeply scarred onboth faces, and with a distorted hlade. Deepbrown patina, specks of lime concretion, andsome modern corroison. Copper with lowarsenic.Size: L. 11.8; W. 6.4; Th. 1.6.Unpublished.Comments: Argaric Bronze Age, c. 1500 -1100 B.C. related to the Argaric (B) axeson basis of its triangular shape.

    No. 9. (Fig. 3, no. 9)Provenance: Prov. Granada.Registration: 1909. 7-14. 10.Donor: Purchased.Description: Very thin flat axe with pa-ralle1 sides, and a rectangular section. Thin-ned at butt and cutting edge, which is blun-ted. Traces of a deep green patina remain,but the surface is now pitted and corroded.Arsenjcal copper.Size: L. 14.4; W. 3.5; Th. 0.5.Unpublished.

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    118 R . J. HARRIS ON, P. T. CRADDOCK AND M. J . H U G H E SComments: Probahly Early Bronze Age, mered cutting edge, and ancient damage atc. 1800-1500 B.C. %milar axes in Blance butt end below the patina. The surface is(1971, Taf. 13, nos. 12, 19, 21). well finished, although the cutting edge hasbeen damaged in modern times. Good con-

    No. 10; (Fig. 3, no. 10)Provenance: Spain.Registration: WG 910.Donor: Greenwell Collection, presentedby J. P. Morgan.Description: Small, thick flat axe with aroughly rectangular cross section and wideblade. Thick butted, with modern damage,and a chipped cutting edge. One face isslightly concave, suggesting it was cast inan open mould. Pitted and corr

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