Broadband MIMO-OFDM WirelessCommunications
GORDON L. STBER, FELLOW, IEEE, JOHN R. BARRY, MEMBER, IEEE,STEVE W. MCLAUGHLIN, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, YE (GEOFFREY) LI, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE,MARY ANN INGRAM, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, AND THOMAS G. PRATT, MEMBER, IEEE
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is apopular method for high data rate wireless transmission. OFDMmay be combined with antenna arrays at the transmitter andreceiver to increase the diversity gain and/or to enhance thesystem capacity on time-variant and frequency-selective channels,resulting in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) config-uration. This paper explores various physical layer researchchallenges in MIMO-OFDM system design, including physicalchannel measurements and modeling, analog beam forming tech-niques using adaptive antenna arrays, spacetime techniques forMIMO-OFDM, error control coding techniques, OFDM preambleand packet design, and signal processing algorithms used for per-forming time and frequency synchronization, channel estimation,and channel tracking in MIMO-OFDM systems. Finally, the paperconsiders a software radio implementation of MIMO-OFDM.
KeywordsAdaptive antennas, broadband wireless, mul-tiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (OFDM), software radio, spacetime coding, syn-chronization.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)has become a popular technique for transmission of signalsover wireless channels. OFDM has been adopted in severalwireless standards such as digital audio broadcasting (DAB),digital video broadcasting (DVB-T), the IEEE 802.11a local area network (LAN) standard and the IEEE 802.16a metropolitan area network (MAN) standard. OFDM is alsobeing pursued for dedicated short-range communications(DSRC) for road side to vehicle communications and asa potential candidate for fourth-generation (4G) mobilewireless systems.
Manuscript received June 23, 2003; revised November 3, 2003. This workwas supported in part by the Yamacraw Mission (http://www.yamacraw.org)and in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant CCR-0121565.
The authors are with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JPROC.2003.821912
OFDM converts a frequency-selective channel into aparallel collection of frequency flat subchannels. The sub-carriers have the minimum frequency separation requiredto maintain orthogonality of their corresponding timedomain waveforms, yet the signal spectra corresponding tothe different subcarriers overlap in frequency. Hence, theavailable bandwidth is used very efficiently. If knowledge ofthe channel is available at the transmitter, then the OFDMtransmitter can adapt its signaling strategy to match thechannel. Due to the fact that OFDM uses a large collectionof narrowly spaced subchannels, these adaptive strategiescan approach the ideal water pouring capacity of a fre-quency-selective channel. In practice this is achieved byusing adaptive bit loading techniques, where different sizedsignal constellations are transmitted on the subcarriers.
OFDM is a block modulation scheme where a block ofinformation symbols is transmitted in parallel on sub-
carriers. The time duration of an OFDM symbol is timeslarger than that of a single-carrier system. An OFDM modu-lator can be implemented as an inverse discrete Fourier trans-form (IDFT) on a block of information symbols followedby an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To mitigate the ef-fects of intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by channeltime spread, each block of IDFT coefficients is typicallypreceded by a cyclic prefix (CP) or a guard interval consistingof samples, such that the length of the CP is at least equalto the channel length. Under this condition, a linear convo-lution of the transmitted sequence and the channel is con-verted to a circular convolution. As a result, the effects ofthe ISI are easily and completely eliminated. Moreover, theapproach enables the receiver to use fast signal processingtransforms such as a fast Fourier transform (FFT) for OFDMimplementation . Similar techniques can be employed insingle-carrier systems as well, by preceding each transmitteddata block of length by a CP of length , while using fre-quency-domain equalization at the receiver.
0018-9219/04$20.00 2004 IEEE
PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 92, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2004 271
Fig. 1. Q L MIMO-OFDM system, where Q and L are the numbers of inputs and outputs,respectively.
Multiple antennas can be used at the transmitter andreceiver, an arrangement called a multiple-input mul-tiple-output (MIMO) system. A MIMO system takesadvantage of the spatial diversity that is obtained by spa-tially separated antennas in a dense multipath scatteringenvironment. MIMO systems may be implemented in anumber of different ways to obtain either a diversity gainto combat signal fading or to obtain a capacity gain. Gen-erally, there are three categories of MIMO techniques. Thefirst aims to improve the power efficiency by maximizingspatial diversity. Such techniques include delay diversity,spacetime block codes (STBC) ,  and spacetimetrellis codes (STTC) . The second class uses a layeredapproach to increase capacity. One popular example ofsuch a system is V-BLAST suggested by Foschini et al. where full spatial diversity is usually not achieved. Finally,the third type exploits the knowledge of channel at thetransmitter. It decomposes the channel coefficient matrixusing singular value decomposition (SVD) and uses thesedecomposed unitary matrices as pre- and post-filters at thetransmitter and the receiver to achieve near capacity .
OFDM has been adopted in the IEEE802.11a LAN andIEEE802.16a LAN/MAN standards. OFDM is also beingconsidered in IEEE802.20a, a standard in the making formaintaining high-bandwidth connections to users moving atspeeds up to 60 mph. The IEEE802.11a LAN standard op-erates at raw data rates up to 54 Mb/s (channel conditionspermitting) with a 20-MHz channel spacing, thus yielding abandwidth efficiency of 2.7 b/s/Hz. The actual throughput ishighly dependent on the medium access control (MAC) pro-tocol. Likewise, IEEE802.16a operates in many modes de-pending on channel conditions with a data rate ranging from4.20 to 22.91 Mb/s in a typical bandwidth of 6 MHz, trans-lating into a bandwidth efficiency of 0.7 to 3.82 bits/s/Hz.Recent developments in MIMO techniques promise a signif-icant boost in performance for OFDM systems. BroadbandMIMO-OFDM systems with bandwidth efficiencies on theorder of 10 b/s/Hz are feasible for LAN/MAN environments.The physical (PHY) layer techniques described in this paperare intended to approach 10 b/s/Hz bandwidth efficiency.
This paper discuss several PHY layer aspects broadbandMIMO-OFDM systems. Section II describes the basic
MIMO-OFDM system model. All MIMO-OFDM receiversmust perform time synchronization, frequency offset esti-mation, and correction and parameter estimation. This isgenerally carried out using a preamble consisting of one ormore training sequences. Once the acquisition phase is over,receiver goes into the tracking mode. Section III provides anoverview of the signal acquisition process and investigatessampling frequency offset estimation and correction inSection IV. The issue of channel estimation is treated in Sec-tion V. Section VI considers spacetime coding techniquesfor MIMO-OFDM, while Section VII discusses codingapproaches. Adaptive analog beam forming approachescan be used to provide the best possible MIMO link.Section VIII discusses various strategies for beamforming.Section IX very briefly considers medium access controlissues. Section X discusses a software radio implementationfor MIMO-OFDM. Finally, Section XI wraps up with someopen issues concluding remarks.
II. MIMO-OFDM SYSTEM MODEL
A multicarrier system can be efficiently implemented indiscrete time using an inverse FFT (IFFT) to act as a modu-lator and an FFT to act as a demodulator. The transmitted dataare the frequency domain coefficients and the samples atthe output of the IFFT stage are time domain samples of thetransmitted waveform. Fig. 1 shows a typical MIMO-OFDMimplementation.
Let denote the length-data symbol block. The IDFT of the date block yields thetime domain sequence , i.e.,
To mitigate the effects of channel delay spread, a guard in-terval comprised of either a CP or suffix is appended to thesequence . In case of a CP, the transmitted sequence withguard interval is
272 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 92, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2004