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Brian Underwood

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    H. Brian Underwo od , USGS-Pa tuxe nt W ild l ife Researc hCe nter, 4 26 I l lic k Hall, State Un ive rsit y of Ne w Yo rk ,

    Colleg e o f E nv iron me ntal Scie nce & For estry , S yracuse, N Y1321 0

    Urban Deer Management:Urban Deer Management:

    Challenges & OpportunitiesChallenges & Opportunities

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    TopicsThe Phenomenon

    The IssuesThe Options

    The Challenges

    The Opportunities

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    Dee r In O ur Mid st Where did suburban deer

    come from?

    Biological Mechanism?

    What theory doesnt tell us

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    AND NOW.AND NOW.

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    Th is is My Sto ry(and I m st ic king to it )

    1) Extensive land uses (includingsuburbanization) have replaced intensiveland uses over the last 100 years

    3) Forest cover (%) increases as land usebecomes more extensive

    5) Predation risk decreases with increasingforest cover

    7) Harvest rate (%) decreases withincreasing forest cover

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    19001900 19501950

    20002000 20502050

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    Birth FractionBirth Fraction

    Forest CoverForest Cover

    Land Use IntensityLand Use Intensity

    Death FractionDeath Fraction

    Predation RiskPredation Risk++DeerDeer

    PopulationPopulation

    Systems ModelSystems Model

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    Mortality Release Irruption

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    Year of Simulation

    Percent

    Forest

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    Number of

    Deer

    PF

    DP

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    Role o f R efug es & Pa rks Parks and Refuges played a major

    role in re-establishing deer acrossthe Great Lakes Region

    Many refuges established in theyears following the GreatDepression

    These refuge populations becamethe sources of deer for adjacentlands as habitat suitabilityincreased

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    URBAURBANN

    RURARURA

    LL

    SuitableSuitable

    UnsuitableUnsuitable

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    COV

    ER

    COV

    ERFOOD

    F

    OOD

    WATERWATER

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    What Theory Doesnt Tell Us

    These are no crash irruptions becausefood and water are not limitingonlycover is limiting.

    Suburban/urban landscapes subsidizedeer populations through access to highquality food resources (e.g., ag lands,fertilized lawns, golf courses, PROW,mast producing trees).

    Leads to overabundance in theecological sense.

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    ISSUES Deer Vehicle CollisionsDeer Vehicle Collisions

    (DVCs)(DVCs)

    Damage to vegetationDamage to vegetation

    Lyme DiseaseLyme Disease

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    Legend

    DVA Locations

    Open Water

    Developed, Open Space

    Grassland/Herbaceous

    Woody Wetlands

    Emergent Herbaceous Wetlands

    3 0 3 6 9 121.5

    Kilometers

    DVC locationsDVC locations

    Each year, deer-Each year, deer-

    vehicle crashesvehicle crashes

    cause morecause more

    than 200than 200

    deaths and tensdeaths and tens

    of thousands ofof thousands of

    injuries, whileinjuries, whileracking up $1.1racking up $1.1

    billion inbillion in

    propertyproperty

    damages.damages.

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Map_of_New_York_highlighting_Onondaga_County.svg
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    Howlett Hill, Marcellus, NYHowlett Hill, Marcellus, NY

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    LandCover

    agriculture: 33.7%

    forested: 25.7%

    development: 18.6%

    wetlands/open water:13.8%

    scrub: 6.9%

    field: 0.7%

    4 ,60 0 0 4, 600 9,2 00 13 ,80 0 18 ,40 02,300

    Meters

    Legend

    Open Water

    Developed, Open Space

    Developed, Low Intensity

    Developed, Medium Intensity

    Developed, High Intensity

    Barren Land

    Deciduous Forest

    Evergreen Forest

    Mixed Forest

    Shrub/Scrub

    Grassland/Herbaceous

    Pasture/Hay

    Cultivated Crops

    Woody Wetlands

    Emergent Herbaceous Wetlands

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    The Opt ions Manage the

    impact only

    Exclusion orshunting

    Manage the

    population Direct reduction

    Fertility Control

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    Man ag in g Imp act Excluding deer from protected

    areas has been the long-standing

    first response to increasingnumbers

    Shunting deer impact to other, less

    valuable areas has been essentiallyignored as a viable managementtool

    If you build it..If you build it..

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    Man ag in g Pop ul at ions I

    32,285

    15,972

    20,2505,000

    36,359

    16,581Processing

    Site/Equip Prep

    Training

    Equip/Supplies

    Shooting Team

    Security

    Total cost ~ $126,447 for 288 deer ($439 per deer)

    Cleveland Metro ParksCleveland Metro Parks

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    Managing White-Tailed DeerManaging White-Tailed Deerin Suburban Environmentsin Suburban Environments

    A Technical GuideA Technical Guide

    Anthony J. DeNicola, Kurt C. VerCauteren,

    Paul D. Curtis, and Scott E. Hygnstrom

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    Man ag in g Pop ulat ions II State of the Art is still a multiple-

    exposure, single shot, remotely delivered

    vaccine

    Scope is about 200 females

    90% contraception rate for 10 yr willreduce a population by one-half

    Access is a key limiting factor

    Fertility ControlFertility Control

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    Th e C hallen ge s Nuisance abatement in a

    pluralistic society is divisivebusiness

    Some stakeholder groups feeldisenfranchised because theydont hold core values

    Must be absolutely transparentprocess for buy-in

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    Th e O pportun it ie s Chance to be pro-active

    Engage Regional/Local PlanningAgencies

    Work with landowner/homeownergroups

    Generate boilerplate for local

    municipalities planning and zoningboards

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    Concl usio ns Suburban/Urban deer are aSuburban/Urban deer are a

    product of natural processes ofproduct of natural processes ofcontemporary landscapescontemporary landscapes

    Deer expanded their range intoDeer expanded their range intosuitable habitats that had peoplesuitable habitats that had peoplein them tooin them too

    Nuisance issues predominateNuisance issues predominate

    discussion of managementdiscussion of management Traditional options are limitedTraditional options are limited

    We need to expand our sphere ofWe need to expand our sphere ofinfluence to prevent futureinfluence to prevent futureproblemsproblems

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