Breeds of Beef Cattle
The Beef IndustryProduces 45% of all livestock cash receipts.An average person may consume 100 or more lbs. Of beef per year.Most beef eaten in the USA is raised in the USAThe state of Texas leads in the # of beef animals produced.
Why Raise Beef Cattle?Cattle consume roughage & may graze pasture.Less labor than other industries, such as dairyBeef cattle do not need to essentially be fed every single day.Useful in both large and small operations.Meat beef is in constant demand by consumers .
Disadvantages to raising beef cattleA producer can take on several risks by raising beef cattle. Dependence on grain prices. Dependence on mother nature.Beef cattle are not as efficient growers as other livestock pigs.A beef cow has a gestation period of 283-days can only get one offspring in one year.Cost of starting a beef operation is expensive.Cattle, equipment, facilities/land, etc.
AngusHistory:Originated from Scotland.Imported to Kansas in 1873.Suited well to Midwestern climate.Today are found in every state in the USA.Breed CharacteristicsBlack in color, smooth hair coat; also Red AngusPolledGood carcass with well-marbled meat
Charolais HistoryOne of the oldest French breeds; central France.Imported to Mexico in 1930.Then imported to Texas in 1936Breed CharacteristicsWhite to light blonde in color, pink skinLarge and very well-muscledHornedBulls: 2,000-2,500 lbs.; cows: 1,500-1,800 lbs
ChianinaPronounced Kee-ah-nee-naHistoryOriginated from Italy, one of the oldest in the world.Semen was imported to the USA in 1971.Breed CharacteristicsBlack skin, originally white fur with black switch.BIG! Bulls - up to 4,000 lbs., 6 feet tall at withers.Cows - up to 2,400 lbs., 5 feet tall at withers.Improve growth rate if used in cross breeding.Polled
Hereford (horned & polled) HistoryOriginated in Hereford, England; polled in Iowa, 1901.First USA herd (horned) in New York in 1840.Breed CharacteristicsWhite faces with red, curled hair.hornedVery hardy and excellent foragers.White pattern is dominant in cross breeding.
LimousinHistoryOriginated in France 7,000 years ago.Breed Association formed in 1886.Semen imported to USA from Canada in 1968.Breed CharacteristicsLight yellow color with lighter circles around eyes.Light colored skin.Lean carcasses with large loin eye area.Polled
Shorthorn (polled and horned) HistoryOriginated in northern England, about 1600.Imported to Virginia in 1783. Breed CharacteristicsRed, White, or roan (mix of red and white) coat.Docile breedExcellent milking capability.Polled or horned
Brahman HistoryDeveloped in southwestern USA.Closely related to Zebu, or Bos indicus cattle (India).Used mostly for crossbreeding. Breed CharacteristicsCharacteristic hump over shoulder.Light or medium gray coat color.Large, drooping ears and loose skin.
BrangusHistoryA result of a cross of Brahman and Angus.Crosses made as early as 1912 in Louisiana. Red Brangus developed in Texas in 1946.Breed DescriptionSolid black or red in color.PolledGood mothering ability & feed efficiency.
Brangus (Red or Black)
Texas LonghornHistoryOriginated from cattle brought from Columbus.Cattle escaped and existed in the wild.Almost became extinct by 1900.USA congress funded a purebred herd.Breed CharacteristicsMany different colors and shadings.Horns spreading 4 feet or more.Are able to survive on sparse pasture.
Simmental HistoryOriginated in Switzerland in the middle ages.Most popular breed in Europe.Brought to USA in 1969. Breed CharacteristicsWhite to light straw faces, with dark red bodies.HornedDocile
GelbviehHistoryOriginated in Bavaria (southern Germany)Introduced in the US in 1971 through AI programsBreed CharacteristicsRed & naturally hornedPolled cattle have been developed in USSuperior fertilityCalving easeMothering abilityHigh growth rate
Maine-AnjouHistoryNW part of FranceImported into North America via Canada in 1969Breed CharacteristicsColor is originally reddish with white markings on head, belly, rear legs & tail (similar to Shorthorn)NOW..color is mainly black with white markingsDual-purpose breedPolled