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Brain regions • Neural systems interact • The limbic system • Number of brain structures connected to hypothalmus • Includes hippocampus & amygdala

Brain regions Neural systems interact The limbic system Number of brain structures connected to hypothalmus Includes hippocampus & amygdala

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Brain regions

• Neural systems interact

• The limbic system

• Number of brain structures connected to hypothalmus

• Includes hippocampus & amygdala

Limbic system

Limbic system

• Electrical stimulation of the limbic system in conscious patients reveals emotion (Ervin & Martin, 1986)

• Stimulation of the cortex rarely triggers reports of emotion or autonomic activation (LeDoux, 1991)

Amygdala

• Contains nuclei serving roles in +ive and –ive emotion

• Information from other parts of brain comes together in amygdala where emotional significance is attached (Aggleton & Mishkin, 1986)

• Monkeys - Lesion amygdala – normal sensation but low affective value

Amygdala

• Electrical stimulation in humans associated with subjective reports of emotion

Fear & disgust

Neutral to (125%) exaggerated fear

Fear Expressions Activatethe Amygdala (Morris et al. 1996)

75% disgust 150% disgust

Disgust expressions activateinsular cortex (Phillips et al. 1997)

Insular cortex

Processes unpleasant tastes, smells

Processes disgusted expressions

Disorders of Emotion Recognition

(Young, Sprenglemeyer et al 1998)

Facial Expression of EmotionFacial Expression of EmotionBrain imaging

• Different emotions activate different brain systems

• Fear activates amygdala

• Disgust activates insular cortex

Facial Expression of EmotionFacial Expression of EmotionBrain damage

• Damage can selectively affect emotion recognition

• Amygdala damage impairs recognition of fear

• Basal ganglia and insular cortex damage impairs recognition of disgust