1. ABSTRACT ICF Bogie is a conventional railway bogie used on the majority of Indian Railway main line passenger coaches. The design of the bogie was developed by ICF (Integral Coach Factory), Perumbur, India in collaboration with the Swiss Car & Elevator Manufacturing Co., Schlieren, Switzerland in the 1950s. The design is also called the Schlieren design based on the location of the Swiss company The dynamic behaviour of a railway bogie has been investigated by using a mathematical model,a space state equation, for simulation with a computer. The comparison of a damped with a undamped bogie demonstrated that the driving stability at high speeds can be uprated after the installation of dampers acting in driving direction and allaround the vertical rotation axis of the bogie The maximum speed of the damped bogie has amounted to 76 m/s.
2. INTRODUCTION 2.1 PROBLEM DEFINTION Design office takes care of the changes in the availability of the new materials, standardization, obsolescence, feed back reports from the user Railways and recommendations by various standing committees and study groups on the Indian Railways. With the changing requirements of the Railways, the design office is challenged to drastically cut down the design cycle time. The design office can proudly take the credit of development of the following new designs in the past three years. Started in 1952, the Integral Coach Factory (ICF) is located in Perambur, a suburb of Chennai, India. Its primary products are rail coaches. Most of the coaches manufactured are supplied to the Indian Railways, but it has also manufactured coaches for railway companies in other countries, including Thailand, Burma, Taiwan, Zambia, Philippines, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, Nigeria, Mozambique and Bangladesh. Recently, ICF exported coaches to Angola. It also has got orders worth of Rs. 102 crores from Sri Lanka. The coach factory provides a number of different coaches primarily for the Indian Railways, primarily first and second class coaches, pantry and kitchen cars, luggage and brake vans, self propelled coaches, electric, diesel and mainline electric multiple units (EMU, DMU, MEMU), metro coaches and Diesel Electric Tower Cars (DETC), Accident Relief Medical Vans (ARMV).
3. HISTORY Schlieren-Zurich (Switzerland). The first Kirloskar 8 centre lathe was installed by the then Railway Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri in the machine shop on 20th Jan 1955. It was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on 2nd October 1955. Thus this great factory, ICF, came into being with K. Sadagopan, as the first Chief Administrative Officer. Dignitaries present on this occasion included Lal Bahadur Shastri, Railway Minister; O.V.Alagesan, Deputy Minister for Railways; K. Kamaraj, Chief Minister of Madras Presidency and U.Huber, Director of the Swiss company for whom this was a proud moment, a witness to the consummation of the efforts of his experts working in collaboration with Indian engineers. Production began in a modest manner in 1955 with the manufacture of seven third class coach shells. Today the coach factory produces more than 1600 coaches of more than 170 varieties. In the year 2007-08, ICF created a milestone by producing 1291 railway passenger coaches, coaches per annum. It employs about 13,000 persons. Nearly 1336 coaches are manufactured every year, and 6 coaches are manufactured per day. 4. INAUGURATION Integral Coach Factory, Chennai, is a premier Production Unit of Indian Railways manufacturing railway passenger coaches. ICF is the first of its kind to be established after Independence for the manufacture of light weight, all steel and all welded Integral railway passenger coaches. The factory was set up in 1955 with Swiss collaboration.
5. STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANIZATION The Integral Coach Factory consists of two main parts - shell division and the furnishing division. The shell division manufactures the skeleton of the rail coach, while the furnishing division is concerned with the coach interiors and amenities. 5.1 PRODUCTION ICFs initial plan was to produce 350 Broad Gauge Third Class shells (unfurnished body of the Railway Coaches) only, which were to be furnished by the Zonal Railways workshops. Later, in view of the severe limitation of capacity of the Railway workshops and also to take advantage of mass production, a separate Furnishing Division was added on 2nd October, 1962. The capacity was progressively expanded from the initial 350 shells to 750 fully furnished coaches per annum by 1973-74 with additional inputs. This was enhanced progressively from 850 coaches during 1986-87 to 1000 coaches in 1990-91. The modernization project is under last stage of execution to augment capacity to 1250 coaches and will be over by 2010-11. Capacity is further being enhanced to 1500 coaches per annum through infrastructure additions and modernization of machines.
5.2 DESIGN FEATURES The design concept of the coach stipulates that the roof, side wall, end wall and the underframe are joined together by welding, to form a fully integral coach shell. The end-wall construction has been made specially strong to make it antitelescopic to ensure maximum safety to passengers. Further, crashworthy features are provided with CBC design to minimize impact on passengers during accidents/derailments. From the basic design handed down by the collaborators, ICF has diversified having established its expertise and skill in this field, to design and manufacture more than 350 different types of coaches for Indian Railways and export market. Every time a new type of coach is launched, emphasis is laid on improving passenger comfort, passenger safety and higher speeds. ICF follows standard inspection procedures to ensure quality from raw material stage to the finished coach. 5.3 PRODUCT RANGE ICF has been meeting the needs of the Indian Railways for varied types of coaches, however sophisticated the type may be. Some of the important types are: 5.3.1 SELF PROPELLED COACHES Electric Multiple Units for suburban services in Metropolitan cities; Diesel Rail Cars; Metro Coaches for Kolkata Metro Railways;
Diesel Electric Multiple Units & Diesel Hydraulic Multiple Units for
non-electrified routes and Mainline Electric Multiple Units for long distance inter-city commutership.
Accident Relief Trains / Medical Vans OHE Inspection Cars & NON-AIRCONDITIONED PASSENGER
Air-conditioned Sleeper Coaches of first & second class; Air-conditioned Chair Cars of first and second class; Double Decker Coaches with seating capacity for 148 passengers as
against the conventional 90 passengers. 5.3.3 SPECIAL COACHES
Air-conditioned & Non-air-conditioned Pantry Cars High Capacity Power Cars for Shatabdi & Rajdhani Express Trains Air-conditioned Military Ward and Saloon Cars for Indian Army. Air-conditioned Saloon Cars, Dining Cars, Bar & Restaurant Cars,
luxury suites for luxury tourist trains like Palace on Wheels (WR), Deccan Odyssey (CR), The Golden Chariot (SWR), Royal Rajasthan on Wheels (NWR) and Maharajas Express of IRCTC
Lifeline Express for operation of hospital on wheels Jet Deflector Crane Cars,
Inter Communication Coaches for DRDO
5.3.4 EXPORT ICFs achievement on the export front has been enviable since its inception. Against stiff international competition from more advanced countries like Japan, etc., ICF secured several export orders, most of which are repeat orders. So far, 359 bogies, 11 stainless steel coach shells and 481 coaches including airconditioned coaches have been exported to 13 Afro-Asian countries. ICF has bagged a number of awards for Export Excellence also. 5.4 DESIGN & DEVLOPMENT EFFORTS Complementing the existing design capacities and facilities, a fully computerised Design & Development Cell has been set up with sophisticated stateof-the-art computer designing facilities and testing equipment both for coach components and raw materials. D&D Centre uses 3-D modelling on SolidWorks platform for generating 3-D drawings and IDEAS software for Finite Element Analysis. Strain gauge testing and squeeze test are done on prototypes before commencement of series production. 5.5 PRODUCTION WITH INNOVATION ICF has carved a niche in the Indian Railway system by constantly improving the quality of travel through its passenger coach design which has undergone a sea- change from the days of bye-gone era of mere transport of passengers. There has been a steady growth both in the quality and quantity of its
production. Over the years ICF has endeavoured to meet passengers expectations through innovations like Cushioned seats in General Second Class and SLR coaches Provision of Controlled Discharge Toilet Systems Anti-injury features in the passenger areas of A/C 2-tier and Sleeper Enhanced carrying capacity in A/C 2-tier, First A/C and Garib Rath Provision of forced ventilation, PIS/PAS in AC/DC EMUs for WR UIC vestibules in mainline coaches Disabled friendly features in SLRD/SRD coaches Modular toilets in passenger coaches Provision of laptop and cell phone charging points in passenger Use of stainless steel in Pantry Cars including interiors and the
coaches Chair Car and CR
coaches equipment As milestones in this endless travel, ICF has obtained the ISO: 9001, ISO: 14001 and ISO: 18001 certificates for the QMS, EMS and OHSAS systems respectively. All this has been made possible through ICFs commitment to progress and improvement with its dedicated workforce functioning in a contented atmosphere in pleasant surroundings and working conditions. Several welfare schemes like staff quarters, adequate clean water supply, improved medical facilities, online