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Biotechnolo gy

Biotechnology. Altering an organism's genetic code so that it produces desired protein

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  • Biotechnology

  • Altering an organism's genetic code so that it produces desired protein

  • B. Techniques to Locate and Identify DNA1. DNA Extraction

  • 2. Restriction Enzymes- enzymes that cut DNA at a specific base sequence

  • Restriction Enzymes

  • Contributions of Salvador LuriaEarly biochemistry work was conducted on organisms with small genomes like E. coli and viruses that prey upon themA plate with nutrient agar would be inoculated with bacteria and they would be allowed to grow until they covered the plateLater, phages were added and they would attack and kill the bacteria leaving empty spots on the plate called plaques

  • Salvador Lurias Observation and Hypothesis Luria observed some bacteria that were unaffected when exposed to phagesLuria hypothesized that these bacteria had some type of primitive immune system that restricted phage growthContributions of Daniel Nathans He realized because DNA has a negative charge, restriction fragments could be separated using an electric current

  • Bacteria Evolved Restriction EnzymesPhageHost Cell DNAHost CellRestriction EnzymeViral DNAIn order to reproduce, viruses must attach to a host cell The virus then injects its DNA into the host cell

  • How Restriction Enzymes Protect BacteriaRestriction enzymes bind with the viral DNA at specific base sequences called recognition sitesThe viral DNA is cut at specific sites called restriction sites which destroys it and protects the bacteria from infection

  • Naming Restriction EnzymesEcoR IE genusEchericiaCo speciescoliR StrainRI Order found1stBamH IB genusBacillusam speciesamyloliquefaciensH StrainHI Order found1stHind IIIH genusHaemophilousin speciesinfluenzead StraindIII Order found3rd

  • 3. Gel Electrophoresis- separating cut DNA fragments by size using an electric current

  • 4. PCR- Polymerase Chain Reaction- allows specific DNA fragments to be copied millions of times

  • 5. RFLPs- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Used to identify DNA when a mutation adds or deletes a restriction site Gel electrophoresis separates the DNA fragments and mutations are identified by an abnormal number of fragments 6. VNTRs & STRPs- similar to RFLP analysis, but uses highly variable, non-coding sequences of DNA

  • C. Techniques for Inserting DNA1. Heat Shock Transformation- rapid temperature fluctuation of cell walls that pushes DNA into a bacterial cell

  • 2. Microinjection- thin needles insert DNA into cells

  • D. Uses of Recombinant DNA Technology Pharmaceuticals- Humilin, TPA, interferon, TNF, Artificial hemoglobin, human growth hormone Agriculture- incide, Flavr-saver tomatoes, frost resistance, salt resistance, insect resistance, herbicide resistance, nitrogen fixationForensics- DNA finger printing Medical- gene therapy

  • E. Dangers of Genetic Engineering1. Pathogens- disease causing organisms

  • 2. Eugenics- should we control or alter our own genome?

  • 3. Stem Cells- growing new human tissues from cell derived from fertilized eggs

  • 4. Legal Questions- can/should we patent life?

  • 5. Genetic Screening- who would get the results of the tests and how could test results be used?

  • 6. GMOs- Genetically modified organisms