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Biography Sigmund Freud

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BIOGRAPHY

SIGMUND FREUD

biodata Full Name : Sigismund Schlomo Freud Born : May 6, 1856) Freiberg, Moravia, now the Czech Republic Residence : Austria, (later) England Nationality : Austrian Ethnicity : Jewish Fathers Name : Jacob Mothers Name : Amalie Died : September 23, 1939 (aged83) London, England Field : Neurology, Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis Institutions : University of Vienna Almamater : University of Vienna Academicadvisor : Jean-Martin Charcot, (later) Josef Breuer Notablestudents : Alfred Adler, John Bowlby, Viktor Frankl, Anna Freud, Ernest Jones, Carl Jung, Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan, Fritz Perls, Otto Rank, Wilhelm Reich, Donald Winnicott Knownfor : Psychoanalysis Notableprizes : Goethe Prize

Early study Owing to his precocious intellect, his parents favoured him over his siblings from the early stages of his childhood; and despite their poverty, they offered everything to give him a proper education. Due to the economic crisis of 1857, father Freud lost his business, and the family moved first to Leipzig, Germany. In 1865, Sigmund entered the Leopoldstdter Communal Realgymnasium, a prominent high school Graduated the Matura in 1873 with honors. After planning to study law, Freud joined the medical faculty at University of Vienna to study under Darwinist Prof. Karl Claus In 1876, he published his first paper about "the testicles of eels" in the "Mitteilungen der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Early workconcept of "psychodynamics" was In 1874, concept of In 1874, the Physiology by German physiologistproposed with the publication ofin Lectures the Physiology "psychodynamics" was proposed with the publication ofin Lectures on on by German physiologist Ernst Wilhelm von Brcke who, Ernst Wilhelm von Brcke who, coordination with physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, one of the formulators of the coordination with physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, one of the formulators of the first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy), supposed that all living first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy), supposed that all living organisms are energy-systems also governed by this principle. During this year, at organisms are energy-systems also governed by this principle. During this year, at the University of Vienna, Brcke served as supervisor for first-year medical student the University of Vienna, Brcke served as supervisor for first-year medical student Sigmund Freud who adopted this new "dynamic" physiology. In his Lectures on Sigmund Freud who adopted this new "dynamic" physiology. In his Lectures on Physiology, Brcke set forth the radical view that the living organism is a Physiology, Brcke set forth the radical view that the living organism is a dynamic system to which the laws of chemistry and physics apply.[7] This was the dynamic system to which the laws of chemistry and physics apply.[7] This was the starting point for Freud's dynamic psychology of the mind and its relation to the starting point for Freud's dynamic psychology of the mind and its relation to the unconscious.[7] The origins of Freuds basic model, based on the fundamentals of unconscious.[7] The origins of Freuds basic model, based on the fundamentals of chemistry and physics, according to John Bowlby, stems from Brcke, Meynert, chemistry and physics, according to John Bowlby, stems from Brcke, Meynert, Breuer, Helmholtz, and Herbart.[8] In 1879, Freud interrupted his studies to complete Breuer, Helmholtz, and Herbart.[8] In 1879, Freud interrupted his studies to complete his one year of obligatory military service, and in 1881 he received his Dr. med. his one year of obligatory military service, and in 1881 he received his Dr. med. (M.D.) with the thesis "ber das Rckenmark niederer Fischarten" (on the spinal cord (M.D.) with the thesis "ber das Rckenmark niederer Fischarten" (on the spinal cord of lower fish species). of lower fish species).

Freud and Freud and Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis Group photo 1909 in front Group photo 1909 in frontof Clark University.. Front of Clark University Front row: Sigmund Freud, row: Sigmund Freud, Granville Stanley Hall,, Granville Stanley Hall C.G.Jung;; back row: C.G.Jung back row: Abraham A. Brill,, Abraham A. Brill Ernest Jones,, Ernest Jones Sandor Ferenczi.. Sandor Ferenczi

Freud married Martha Bernays in 1886, after Freud married Martha Bernays in 1886, after

opening his own medical practice, specializing opening his own medical practice, specializing in neurology. After experimenting with hypnosis in neurology. After experimenting with hypnosis on his neurotic patients, Freud abandoned this on his neurotic patients, Freud abandoned this form of treatment as it proved ineffective for form of treatment as it proved ineffective for many, in favor of a treatment where the patient many, in favor of a treatment where the patient talked through his or her problems. This came talked through his or her problems. This came to be known as the "talking cure", though to be known as the "talking cure", though feeling cure may have been more accurate, as feeling cure may have been more accurate, as the ultimate goal of this talking was to locate the ultimate goal of this talking was to locate and release powerful emotional energy that had and release powerful emotional energy that had initially been rejected, and imprisoned in the initially been rejected, and imprisoned in the unconscious mind. Freud called this denial of unconscious mind. Freud called this denial of emotions "repression", and he believed that it emotions "repression", and he believed that it was often damaging to the normal functioning was often damaging to the normal functioning of the psyche, and could also retard physical of the psyche, and could also retard physical functioning as well, which he described as " functioning as well, which he described as " psychosomatic" symptoms. (The term "talking psychosomatic" symptoms. (The term "talking cure" was initially coined by the patient Anna O. cure" was initially coined by the patient Anna O. who was treated by Freud's colleague who was treated by Freud's colleague Josef Breuer.) The "talking cure" is widely seen Josef Breuer.) The "talking cure" is widely seen as the basis of psychoanalysis.[9] as the basis of psychoanalysis.[9] There has long been dispute about the There has long been dispute about the possibility that a romantic liaison blossomed possibility that a romantic liaison blossomed between Freud and his sister-in-law, Minna between Freud and his sister-in-law, Minna Bernays, who had moved into Freud's Bernays, who had moved into Freud's apartment at 19 Berggasse in 1896. It has been apartment at 19 Berggasse in 1896. It has been suggested that the affair resulted in a suggested that the affair resulted in a pregnancy and subsequently an abortion for pregnancy and subsequently an abortion for Miss Bernays. A hotel log dated August 13, Miss Bernays. A hotel log dated August 13, 1898 seems to support the allegation of an 1898 seems to support the allegation of an affair. affair.

Freud's apartment at 19 Freud's apartment at 19 Berggasse Berggasse

In 1930, Freud received the Goethe Prize in appreciation of his In 1930, Freud received the Goethe Prize in appreciation of his

contribution to psychology and to German literary culture. contribution to psychology and to German literary culture. Three years later the Nazis took control of Germany and Freud's Three years later the Nazis took control of Germany and Freud's books featured prominently among those burned by the Nazis. books featured prominently among those burned by the Nazis. Freud decided to go into exile "to die in freedom". He and his family Freud decided to go into exile "to die in freedom". He and his family left Vienna in June 1938 and traveled to London. left Vienna in June 1938 and traveled to London. A heavy cigar smoker, Freud endured more than 30 operations A heavy cigar smoker, Freud endured more than 30 operations during his life due to mouth cancer. In September 1939 he prevailed during his life due to mouth cancer. In September 1939 he prevailed on his doctor and friend Max Schur to assist him in suicide. on his doctor and friend Max Schur to assist him in suicide. Schur administered three doses of morphine over many hours that Schur administered three doses of morphine over many hours that resulted in Freud's death on September 23, 1939 resulted in Freud's death on September 23, 1939 Freud's body was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium in Freud's body was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium in England during a service attended by Austrian refugees, including England during a service attended by Austrian refugees, including the author Stefan Zweig. the author Stefan Zweig.

Freud's ideasFreud has been influential in two related Freud has been influential in two related but distinct ways. He simultaneously but distinct ways. He simultaneously developed a theory of how the human developed a theory of how the human mind is organized and operates mind is organized and operates internally, and how human behavior internally, and how human behavior both conditions and results from this both conditions and results from this particular theoretical understanding. particular theoretical understanding. This led him to favor certain clinical This led him to favor certain clinical techniques for attempting to help cure techniques for attempting to help cure psychopathology psychopathology

Freud memorialSigmund Freud memorial Sigmund Freud memorial in Hampstead,, North in Hampstead North London. Sigmund and London. Sigmund and Anna Freud lived at 20 Anna Freud lived at 20 Maresfield Gardens, near Maresfield Gardens, near to this statue. Their house to this statue. Their house is now a museum is now a museum dedicated to Freud's life dedicated to Freud's life and work. [1] The building and work. [1] The building behind the statue is the behind the statue is the Tavistock Clinic,, a major Tavistock Clinic a major psychiatric institution. psychiatric institution.

THE END

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