BIOFUELS AND THEIR FUTURE PERESPECTIVES

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  • 1.Title :Biofuel and its Future Perspectives Name:Zafar Iqbal BuhrooRegd. No.:2010-336-DCourse No.:Seri-791Seminar Incharge:Dr. M. F. BaqualDate of seminar:29.12.2011

2. INTRODUCTION In recent times, the world has been confronted with an energy crisis due to depletion of fossil fuel reserves and increased environmental problems. The tremendous use of petroleum products is responsible for alarming pollution of environment . This situation has lead to the search for an alternative fuel, which should not be only sustainable but also environment friendly. For developing countries, fuels of bio-origin such as ethanol, vegetable oil, biomass, biogas etc are becoming focus of attention. Shrinking crude oil reserves and limited refining capacity, world will have to depend heavily on imports of crude oil. From the point of view of protecting the global environment and the concern for long term supplies of conventional fuels, it becomes imperative to develop alternate fuels comparable with conventional fuels. Biofuels is the only alternative. 3. WHAT IS BIOFUEL ?Any fuel that is derived from biomass i.e., plant material or animal waste. Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels derived from renewable biomass. 4. Why Bio-Fuels? Increasing energy requirement Thrust on resource conservation Soaring oil prices Reducing availability Stringent environmental regulations 5. TYPES OF BIOFUEL: BIOGAS (Methane) BIOALCOHOL- (Ethanol) BIODIESEL. 6. BIOFUEL PLANTS: Jatropha Jojoba Karanjia Neem Mahua canola Pedilanthus Camelina CalotropisCastor oil PlantSoybeanJatrophaSunflower Palm oil Maize Wheat Potato SugarcaneRapeseed 7. GASIFICATION process heat, pressure, and steam to convert materials directly into a gas composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Thefeedstock is prepared and fed, in either dry or slurred form, into a sealed reactor chamber called a gasifier. Thefeedstock is subjected to high heat, pressure, and either an oxygen-rich or oxygen-starved environment within the gasifier. 8. Typical raw MaterialsCoal, petroleum-based materials, and organic materials. 9. Products of Gasification *Hydrocarbon gases (SYNGAS). * Hydrocarbon liquids (oils). * Char (carbon black and ash).CO +H2 (more than 85 percent by volume) & carbon dioxide and methane. Biogas Production Syngas 10. Gobar Gas Gobargas production is an anaerobic process Fermentation is carried out in an air tight, closed cylindrical concrete tank called a Digester 11. Layout Design of Gobar gas PlantCunningham & Cunningham. 2005. 4th Edition 12. Typical composition of biogas Compound%ageMethane50-75Carbon dioxide25-50Nitrogen0-10Hydrogen0-1Hydrogen sulphide0-3 Cunningham & Cunningham. 2005. 4th Edition 13. Comparison:55-65% Methane 30-35% Carbon dioxide and other tracesCow dung gas Heating value 600 B.T.U per cubic foot80% MethaneNatural gas Heating value 1000 B.T.U per cubic foot 14. Cowdung slurry 2.5% Nitrogen 1.5% Phosphorus 0.8% Potassium 75% O. HumusCow dung slurryOne pound of cow manure generate one cubic foot of gasEnough gas to cook a days meal for 4-6 people in India 15. Indiaalready has around 5000 BIOGAS plants.30million rural households in China have BIOGAS digesters.In2007, 12000 vehicles were fueled with upgraded biogas worldwide mostly in Europe.Biogaspowered train is already in service in Sweden since 2005.www.newscientist.com/article/mg 16. Biogas- Feasibility in J and K About 70% of the population derives its livelihood from the agriculture sector and use agricultural residues, cattle dung cakes for cooking as fuel. Estimate shows availability of 87.06 lakh livestock in J and K state, which reflect the vast potential for biogas generation . If 60% of livestick @ 5 kg dung / livestock / day is utilised for this purpose, about 3.26 lakh family size biogas plants of 2-3m 3 could be run in the state. The biogas thus generated will suffice the needs of more than 42.57 lakh persons. Energy production will also save more than 1087.3 million tones of fuel wood. Biogas digested manure will be available for use in crops.Contd., 17. Biogas Technology ~ By SKUAST-K SKUAST-K has designed the suitable biogas plant for round the year production of methane gas under temperate climatic conditions.Floating drum type biogas plant with poly house, giving additonal heat was found successful for biogas production even at -6oC temperature.Technology being transferred to rural people of the region through field demonstrations, training programmes and installation of plants at farmers level. Division of Agri-Engineering, SKUAST- K, DST project 18. Environmental Benefits Reduction of wasteExtremely low emission of greenhouse gases compared to fossil fuels.Saving time of collecting firewood.Protecting forests.Saving money.Improving hygienic conditions.Producing higher quality fertilizer.Reducing air and water pollution. 19. Bio Mass-Source of Energy Biomassalready supplies 14 % of the worlds primary energy consumption. On average, biomass produces 38 % of the primary energy in developing countries. USA:4% of total energy from bio mass, around 9000 MW---- INDIAis short of 15,000 MW of energy and it costs about 25,000 crores annually for the government to import oil. 20. BioMass from cattle manure, agricultural waste, forest residue and municipal waste. Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes to give bio gas Fertilizers as by product. Averageelectricity generation of 5.5kWh per cow perday!!Wikipedia : Biofuels in India 21. The fully integrated agro-biofuel-biomaterialbio power cycle for sustainable technologies.Contd., 22. Enhanced plant biomass production and processingArthur et al., 2006 23. Global biomass resources from agricultural residues, wood, and herbaceous energy crops.Cellulose Polymer of -(1,4)-glucan; degree of polymerization ~300 to 15,000Cellulose Major global biopolymers Production: ~35 to 50% Production: ~25 to 30% Production: ~15 to 30% Polymer of -(1,4)-glucan; degree of polymerization ~300 to 15,000 30%Production :~ 35 50%5 ~125 uc tin:on:~ti o uc30%Lignin Polymer derived from coniferyl, coumaryl, sinapyl alcoholPro dd ProMajor global biopolymersHemicellulose Short-chain branched, substituted polymer of sugars; degree of polymerization ~7 to 200Arthur et al., 2006 24. Sugarcane Molasses Agricultural waste Sorghum Grain and Tubers Lignocellulosic biomass 25. World Ethanol Production[F.A.O. Litch Publication, 2004] 26. Leading Ethanol Producers CountryCropBrazil (ProAlcool)Sugarcane MolassesUSAMaize (95%) , some wheat & BarleyCanadaMaize plus 15% wheat(http://www.distill.com/berg) 27. Ethanol THE WORLD SCENARIO BRAZIL World leader in production and export of ethanol. Ethanol produced per day equivalent to 200,000 barrels of gasoline. 24% blend ethanol mandatory.USA Ethanol : a big boost to economy E85 sells cheaper than gasoline Currently production aimed at 4.5 Billion gallons/yr MTBE phased out in many states Soya bean main source of biodiesel 28. INDIA Sourcesof ethanol: Sugarcane Molasses Agricultural wasteAnnuallitersproduction capacity of 1.5 Billion 29. Ethanol Application worldwide[IEA Report, 2001] 30. Biodiesel Biodiesel is a Biofuel consisting of fatty acid methyl alkyl esters that are derived from organic oils, plants, animals through the process of transesterfication.TRANS+3 Methyl Alkyl Esters (BIODIESEL) 31. Flowers Biodiesel from Jatropha Seeds of the Jatropha nut is crushed and oil Is extracted The oil is processed and refined to form bio-diesel.BIODIESELReady for OilFruitsHarvested 32. Economic significance of Jatropha Soap production Green manure vermiculture Medicinal uses Soil erosion controlPotentials of JatrophaEmployment generationAnimal feedHedgeLubricantsPesticidal value EricultureBiodieselKumar et al., 2005 33. Eco-FriendlyClean burningRenewable fuelNo engine modificationIncrease in engine lifeBiodegradable and non-toxicEasy to handle and store 34. Bio-diesel The first diesel engine was developed by Rudolf Diesel in Germany (1895), it was powered by peanut oil in! 35. Bus runs on Biodiesel A test flight has been performed in 2006 July by a Czech jet aircraft completely powered on biodiesel. The British Royal Train on 15 September 2007 completed its first ever journey run on 100% biodiesel fuel supplied by Green Fuels Ltd. 36. BIODIESEL DEMAND & AREA OF PLANTATION[Planning Commission Report, 2005] 37. IOC - Indian Railways MoU Jatropha plantation on 70 ha of Railway land 1,10,000 saplings have already been planted in Surendra Nagar, GujaratShatabdi & Jan Shatabadi Train Trial Runs conducted earlier5 Trains through Lucknow already running from 6th June 2004 on 10% Biodiesel 38. Reliance has taken up a project of 700million dollars for cultivation of Jatropha in Andra Pradesh.Mehla S K 2007 39. Jatropha in India : Promising bio-fuel crop for wastelandIn India, 5 large plants set up with a capacity of 300,000 liters per day, 4 medium size plants with a capacity of 30,000 liters per day, and a number of small plants with a capacity of 1,000 to 3,000 liters per day. Practically all plants are running at very low capacities, or closed due to lack of oil. (NNFCC, 2011) 40. Can Biodiesel From Jatropha work in India? India needs 200 Billion gallons of B--oil to replace transpot fuels usedWe required 384 mh of land for Jatropha cultivation is a big constraintIndia with just 2.4% of global area supports more than 17% of the human population and 18% of the cattleWhere do we find the oil for biodiesel?A sustainable source of oil is to be found before we can think of biodiesel. Khan S & Rashmi , 2008 41. Comparison of some sources of biodiesel CROPOIL YIELD (L/ha)CORN172SOYBEAN446CANOLA1190JATROPHA1892OIL PALM5950COCONUT2689MICROALGAE-a1,36,900MICROALGAE-b58,700In India only 5.4Mh area of algae ponds are required to replace all the petroleum transportation fuels Chisti Y, 2007 42. Oil Content of Microalgae 43. CONCLUSION:Blendingof biodiesel in diesel offers gre