BIODIESEL : AN ALTERNATE FUEL

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BIODIESEL : AN ALTERNATE FUEL. Dr. J. P. Nath Baripada. What are Biofuels ?. Renewable fuels from bio sources Include Ethanol Biodiesel Bio-hydrogen Biogases. WHY BIOFUELS?. SUSTAINABILITY POLLUTION THREAT REDUCTION OF GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS REGIONAL (RURAL) DEVELOPMENT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of BIODIESEL : AN ALTERNATE FUEL

  • BIODIESEL :AN ALTERNATE FUEL

    Dr. J. P. NathBaripada

  • What are Biofuels ?Renewable fuels from bio sourcesIncludeEthanolBiodieselBio-hydrogenBiogases

  • WHY BIOFUELS?SUSTAINABILITY

    POLLUTION THREAT

    REDUCTION OF GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

    REGIONAL (RURAL) DEVELOPMENT

    SOCIAL STRUCTURE & AGRICULTURE

    SECURITY OF SUPPLY

  • FIRST USE OF PEANUT OIL IN1895 BY DR RUDOLF DIESEL The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. But such oils may become in course of time as important as petroleum and the coal tar products of the present time." (1858 1913) 1912

  • WORLD EXPERIENCE ON BIODIESEL

  • Biodiesel has been produced on an industrial scale in EU since 1992, largely in response to positive signals from the EU institutions. In 2001, it is estimated that some twenty plants produced around 1 million tonnes, mainly in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden.

    BIODIESEL IN EUROPE

  • EU TARGETS FOR BIOFUELBiodiesel growth : 25%/ YearGermany/Austria-no tax, UK 20% lower taxOther Countries 0-10% of diesel Tax

    BiofuelYearMarketBiodiesel20032.3MMTBiodiesel20108.3MMTBiodiesel2000504 M$Biodiesel20072.4 B$ Ethanol20038.3 MMT Ethanol2010 9.7MMT

  • US Lead A Senate ReportAnalyze the agricultural sector and macroeconomic impacts of the Hagel-Johnson renewable energy bill (S.1006)Requires a minimum percentage of motor vehicle fuel sold in the U.S. must be renewable fuel.0.8% in 2002 to 5% by 2012 ( NOW MAY BE 8% )Renewable fuels are biodiesel, ethanol or other fuel produced from biomass and biogas.

    JMU-07/01

  • Biodiesel Production

  • What US people pay for in a gallon of diesel(Dec, 2002)Retail Price: $1.29 / gallonRetail Price Rs.16.85 / L

  • BIODIESEL vs OTHER ALTERNATE FUELSDIESELCNGLNGMETHANOL ETHANOL BIODIESEL___________________________________________________________________________Vehicle cost10555510Infrastructure10255510Safety743138Operating range10510101010Operating cost1057557Reliability10753310Customer acceptance588898Funding assistance1102022Training cost10555510Fuel availability10105556Fuel quality9510889Fuel price stability 688666

    TOTAL987473616696__

  • WHAT IS BIODIESEL ?Biodiesel is vegetable oil processed to resemble Diesel Fuel

    High Cetane High lubricity Comparable BTU content Readily mixes with dieselReady to use in diesel run engines

  • IMPORTANCE OF BIODIESELEnvironment friendlyClean burningRenewable fuelNo engine modificationIncrease in engine lifeBiodegradable and non-toxicEasy to handle and store

  • BIODIESELMade by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol

    Most of the oils, edible & non-edible are suitable

    Selection of feed stock based on* Availability* Price* PolicyFrance,Germany & Italy currently the leaders

  • RAW MATERIALSRapeseed, the major source (>80%)

    Sunflower oil (10%, Italy and Southern France)

    Soybean oil (USA & Brazil)

    Palm oil (Malaysia)

    Linseed, olive oils (Spain)

    Cottonseed oil (Greece)

    Beef tallow (Ireland), lard, used frying oil (Austria), Jatropha (Nicaragua & South Americas), Guang-Pi (China)

  • BASIC REACTION

    CH2COOR|CHCOOR|CH2COOR

    3 ROH Catalyst CH2OH|CHOH|CH2OHR'COOR +R''COOR+R'''COOR

    60 Kg Oil 6.78 Kg Alcohol 0.60KgNaOH6.5 KgGlycerin58 Kg Biodiesel

  • BIODIESEL SPECIFICATIONS

    PROPERTIESUNITDIN 51606 (1997)ASTM (2001)6751Densityg/cm30.875-0.90--Carbon Residue (100%)% mass Max 0.05Max 0.050Ash Content% massMax 0.02Max 0.020Total Sulfur% massMax 0.01Max 0.05Cetane No.--Min 49Min 40Flash Point 0CMin 110Min 100Copper Corrosiondegree1No. 3b maxViscosity, 40 0Cmm2/s (cSt)3.5-5.01.9-6.0Neutralization ValuemgMax 0.5Max 0.8Free Glycerin% massMax 0.02Max 0.02Total Glycerin% massMax 0.25Max 0.24CFPPSummer (0C)Max 0.0--Winter (0C)Max -15--

  • BIODIESEL PROCESS ATIOC (R&D ) Base catalyzed transesterification of oilRAW MATERIALS USED

    *Rice Bran oil*Sunflower oil*Mohuva oil*Rapeseed oil*Japtropha oil* Karanjia oil

    SCALE: 100g to 60kg batch

  • IOC R&D BIODIESEL PILOT-PLANT

  • BIODIESEL-Why Lower Emissions ?Biodiesel has high cetaneIn built Oxygen contentBurns fullyHas no SulphurNo AromaticsComplete CO2 cycle

  • Emissions ReductionsB20 emissions reductions compared to petroleum diesel: Carbon monoxide -20% Unburned hydrocarbons -30% Particulate matter -22% Sulfates -20% NPAH -50% Mutagenicity -20%

  • Environmental ConcernsEmissions by combustion engine (100B)

    Emission Reduction (%)CO67HC30PM68SOOT50PAH85CO2100NOX+/-2--6S80-100

  • ExplorationRefiningUse in Cars and TrucksFossil CO2Release to AtmospherePETRO-DIESEL CO2 CYCLE13 pounds of fossil CO2 released per gallon burned

  • BIODIESEL CO2 CYCLENo fossil CO2 Released ; No global warmingBiodiesel ProductionUse in Cars and TrucksOil CropsRenewable CO2

  • BUS POWERED ALTERNATIVE FUELS

  • WIDE ACCEPTANCEBy diesel vehicle industry

    Audi BMWCaseClaasDeutzIsekiJohn DeereKubotaMassey-FergusonMercedes-BenzNissanPuegotRenaultSameSeatSkodaSteyrValmetVolkswagenVolvo

    By the fuel trade; e.g, ELF, Texaco, Shell, Total

    By the end-user bus companies, taxi fleets, forestry enterprises,railroad, boat owners

    A total of 128 production sites (capacity 500-120,000 tons/annum)

  • LUBRICITY-Major BenefitLONG TERM ENGINE WEAR EXTENSIVELY STUDIED IN EUROPE & THE US

    EXXON STUDYB20 PROVIDE, SIGNIFICANT, QUANTIFIABLE IMPROVEMENTS IN WEARFILM FORMING ABILITY 93% FILM (B20); 32% FILM (DIESEL)

    EPA RULE (JAN. 2001) TO BRING DOWN SULFUR CONTENT IN DIESEL FROM 500 ppm TO 15 ppm BY 2006 LUBRICITY TEST HAVE SHOWN THAT UPTO 2% OF BIODIESEL IS ENOUGH TO MAKE ANY DISTILLATE FUEL FULLY LUBRICIOUS;

  • FUEL CONSUMPTIONBiodiesel contains ~10% oxygen

    Brake-specific fuel consumption figures Petrodiesel0.43 lb/HP-hrB20 0.44

    B100 0.50

  • BIODIESEL IS REALITY NOWLarge number of surveys doneVariety of feed stocks testedTransesterification developed on commercial scaleBiodiesel specs. By ASTM & othersAbout 40 million mile testingApproval by auto OEMsTax structure in place in several countriesFuture projections firmed upLegalisations in place in many countries

    INDIA HAS TROPICAL ADVANTAGE ENORMOUS WASTE LANDS & CHEAP FARM LABOURBIODIESEL IN INDIA CAN BE SUCCESS STORY

  • US RAILROAD BIODIESEL Sierra Railroad in California, oldest company First to use biodiesel as fuel 1500 locos to be converted Need 30 million gallon of Biofuels/Year 3.5 lac acres of land farm 3000 additional jobsShall meet EPA norms for 2006

  • RAIL ROAD TEST PROGRAM ON BIODIESEL (1999)4000 HP (2984 KW) gas turbine powered passenger locomotiveSeveral Biofuels tested (REE, SME, etc.)Turbine maintenance cost comparedEnergy content, compatibilities, emission, cost compared to dieselEmission data studies Cost/Km/Unit energy (power) calculated Biodiesel holds future in railroad applicationsRemarkable reduction in emission ; Report at www.nrbp.org

  • BIODIESEL AND ECONOMYAn increase of $1 per barrel of crude oil prices adds $425 million to our oil import bill

    Oil import constitutes a major part of our trade deficit and has an enormous impact on our economy and creation of new jobs

    The US dept of Energy estimates that each $billion of trade deficit costs the US 27,000 jobs

    Developing a strong market for biodiesel would have tremendous economic benefits

    Investments in biodiesel technology may ensure that we have transportation fuel options and we will not be so vulnerable

  • THE INDIAN SCENE

    Annual growth rate ~6% compared to world average of 2%

    Oil pool deficit & Subsidies Rs 16,000 crores , Rs 18,440 crores (1996-97)

    Current per capita usage of petroleum is absymmaly low (0.1 ton/year) against 4.0 in Germany or 1.5 tons in Malaysia

    Even Malaysias figure would be beyond our paying capacity

    Our domestic production would meet only 33% of demand at the end of 10th plan and only 27% by 2010-11

    INVESTMENT IN BIOFUELS MAKE STRONG ECONOMIC SENSE

  • CAN BIODIESEL WORK IN INDIA?India with just 2.4% of global area supports more than 16% of the human population and 17% of the cattle population

    India is one of the largest importers of edible oil

    Where do we find the oil for biodiesel?

    A sustainable source of vegetable oil is to be found before we can think of biodiesel

  • JATROPHA MAY BE THE ANSWER?According to the Economic Survey (1995-96), Govt of India, of the cultivable land area about 100-150 million hectares are classified as waste or degraded landJatropha (Jatropha curcas, Ratanjyot, wild castor) thrives on any type of soilNeeds minimal inputs or managementHas no insect ,pests& not browsed by cattle or sheepCan survive long periods of droughtPropagation is easyYield from the 3rd year onwards and continues for 25-30 years25% oil from seeds by expelling; 30% by solvent extractionThe meal after extraction an excellent organic manure (38% protein, N:P:K ratio 2.7:1.2:1)

  • Jatropha PlantationStudy by Agro-Forestry Federation Maharashtra (1991)Jatropha is a hardy plant.Well adopted to arid, semi-arid conditions.Low fertility and moisture demand.Grow on stony, shallow or even calcareous soil.Propagated through seed or cuttings.Tolerate to scanty to heavy rainfall.

  • Jatropha Plantation5-6Kg seed / hectare, 2500 plants / hectare EXPECTED YIELDS

    Year after plantingExpect