Biblical Hebrew Lesson 4

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Biblical Hebrew Lesson 4. The Hebrew Caf thehebrewcafe.com/forum. . Textbook: Cook & Holmstedts Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online: http://individual.utoronto.ca/holmstedt/Textbook.html. Review . The Hebrew Caf thehebrewcafe.com/forum. . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Lesson 1

Biblical HebrewLesson 4The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumTextbook: Cook & Holmstedts Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009)Found here online: http://individual.utoronto.ca/holmstedt/Textbook.html

ReviewThe Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumSlide 22

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumWhat are the three inseparable prepositions and what do they mean?

Translate the following words or phrases into Hebrew:- The king.-There is no king in land.-The slave.-There is no slave in the house.-The way.-There is no way to Israel.-The house.-The king came out () from the house..-The slave.-The slave is the same as the king.

The main issues in lesson 3 dealt with the denite article, the three inseparable prepositions and the preposition and how each is pointed (vocalized) when they come into contact with a noun.

This will all get much clearer as you get experience reading text.Slide 3

Nouns in Hebrew The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumSlide 44

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumIn English, we say that a noun is a person, place, thing or idea. Thus, friend is a noun, since it is a person; school is a noun, since it is a place; pencil is a noun, since it is a thing; and, attention is a noun, since it is an idea.

Generally, nouns in English are made plural by adding s or es to the end of the word. Thus, we have dog-dogs, boy-boys, friend-friends and lady-ladies.

There are irregular plurals in English, such as woman-women and child-children.

Possession is shown regularly by adding s to singular nouns (my friends house) and just to plural nouns (my friends house). Possessives are always placed before the head of noun phrases in English.Slide 5

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumIn Hebrew, by comparison, nouns are again representative of persons, places, things and ideas. (king) is a noun. (heaven) is a noun. (song/poem) is a noun. And, (love) is a noun.

All nouns in Hebrew are either masculine or feminine in gender. Even nouns that dont have gender in English do in Hebrew. For example, table, throne and day are masculine, while land, ground and commandment are feminine. Theres no real reason behind how the language decides what is masculine and feminine, but there are signs in the words themselves to indicate whether they are masculine or feminine (most of the time).Slide 6

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumHebrew grammar books generally say that masculine nouns are unmarked in the singular (they have no ending just the root letters) and are marked with in the plural, while feminine nouns end in either or and are marked with in the plural.

Examples of this are: kingdog (m.)boy

queendog (f.)girl

kingshipmareword, messageSlide 7

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumThe fact is, though, that exceptions make up about 30% of the cases. So, really, a masculine noun can have a feminine-looking plural (- father).

All of these words are masculine. Notice the feminine ending. dreamwindowchair, throne

fathertable

These nouns are feminine with masculine endings: wordyearcitySlide 8

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumBody parts are generally unmarked but are feminine.

handeyelegfaceearhand

A few exceptions to this are:upper armhairnose

This should cover everything that we need to know about Hebrew nouns at this point. Notice that we have not yet mentioned anything about possession in Hebrew. This is being saved for later, since it will take some explanation of its own. Slide 9

Comments on Verbs The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumSlide 10

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumVerbs DenitionsHebrew verbs (just like nouns) are regularly built on three-letter (triliteral or triconsonantal) roots. This is called the shoresh.

The root -- can be arranged in many different ways:Slide 11 (*)[noun]king[noun]queen[noun]kingship, reign[noun]kingdom[verb]he was king, reigned[verb]he made X king, caused X to reign

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumVerbs (cont.)So, the root of a word refers to the three letters that make up the underlying idea behind it. With our previous example, the root mem-lamed-kaf (--) is associated with kingliness or royalty. The root shin-kuf-resh (--), however, is associated with deception and falsehood. We have (lie, falsehood) and (he lied) associated with it.

The binyan (Hebrew, structure from the root -- associated with building) of a verb is the pattern that it falls into. There are seven regular binyanim that we will learn as well as some offshoots of them. For example, he reigned is in the binyan kal (the simple binyan since it is based on the root letters without any additions) while he caused X to reign is in the binyan hiphil (which is causative). In the meantime, were learning only the binyan kal.Slide 12

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumVerbs (cont.)Tense generally refers to time reference, either past, present or future. English has all three tenses in various forms. Biblical Hebrew (as opposed to modern Hebrew) does not have any tenses. When we speak of verb forms in biblical Hebrew, we need to speak of aspect rather than tense.

There are two aspects of the verb in Hebrew perfect and imperfect.

The perfect is generally associated with the past tense when it stands alone. From this aspect, we see the action as a whole event. We look at it from outside as if its complete (perfect).

Alternatively, the imperfect is generally associated with the future tense. From this aspect, we see the events unfolding around us, as incomplete.Slide 13

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumVerbs (cont.)Hebrew also has what has come to refer to the present tense in modern thinking. It is far less frequent than either of the two nite verb paradigms. We tend to call it an active participle and translate it either with the present tense or with ing .

For the moment, we are going to look only at part of the perfect. Specically, were going to learn the singular forms.

Number is either singular or plural. It matches the subject of the sentence.Gender in verbs can be masculine, feminine or common (either for men or women).Person can be either rst (the one speaking), second (the one spoken to) or third (the one spoken about).Slide 14

Verb Examples The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumSlide 15

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumSlide 16 ()I attended (1cs) ()you attended (2fs) ()you attended (2ms) ()she attended (3fs) (-)he attended (3ms)

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumSlide 17 ()I kept (1cs) ()you kept (2fs) ()you kept (2ms) ()she kept (3fs) (-)he kept (3ms)

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumSlide 18 ()I went (1cs) ()you went (2fs) ()you went (2ms) ()she went (3fs) (-)he went (3ms)

Goals of Lesson 4 The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumSlide 19

The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumThe fourth lessons goals are basically as follows:

Basic noun concepts:There are masculine and feminine nouns.Masculines are generally unmarked in the singular and -im in the plural.Feminines end in heh or tav and have -ot in the plural.

Basic verb concepts:Person = 1, 2 or 3.Gender = m or f.Number = s, p or c.Binyan = structure (for now, kal is all were learning)Aspect = perfect or imperfect.

How to conjugate a verb in binyan kal in the singular.Slide 20

Biblical HebrewLesson 4The Hebrew Cafthehebrewcafe.com/forumTextbook: Cook & Holmstedts Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009)Found here online: http://individual.utoronto.ca/holmstedt/Textbook.html