Bhopal - Final Presentation

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    BHOPAL

    GAS

    TRAGEDY

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    This report is prepared by Abhijit Chaki A2

    Anukool Rastogi A8

    Sooraj Arur A9

    Swapnil Bhoir A15

    Shivam Dave A26

    Neeraj Gangrade A32

    Vishal Janani A42

    Dipesh Kale A45

    Mrugank Mehta A55

    Abhishek Pawar Alpha12

    Amrish Sawe Alpha32

    Sudhanshu Nirbhavne Alpha48

    Suman Sandhu Alpha49

    Meghshyam Thakre Alpha54

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    HISTORY

    In the 1970s, the Indian government initiatedpolicies to encourage foreign companies to

    invest in local industry.

    Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) was asked tobuild a plant for the manufacture of Sevin, a

    pesticide commonly used throughout Asia

    In 1984, the plant was manufacturing Sevin at onequarter of its production capacity due to

    decreased demand for pesticides

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    HISTORY

    At 11.00 PM on December 2 1984, while most of theone million residents of Bhopal slept, an operator at theplant noticed a small leak of methyl isocyanate (MIC)gas and increasing pressure inside a storage tank

    The vent-gas scrubber, a safety device designer to

    neutralize toxic discharge from the MIC system, hadbeen turned off three weeks prior.

    Apparently a faulty valve had allowed one ton of waterfor cleaning internal pipes to mix with forty tons of

    MIC. around 1.00 AM, December 3, loud rumbling

    reverberated around the plant as a safety valve gaveway sending a plume of MIC gas into the earlymorning air.

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    HISTORY

    Within hours, the streets of Bhopal were litteredwith human corpses and the carcasses of

    buffaloes, cows, dogs and birds.

    An estimated 3,800 people died immediately,mostly in the poor slum colony adjacent to the

    UCC plant

    It became one of the worst chemical disasters inhistory and the name Bhopal became

    synonymous with industrial catastrophe.

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    HISTORYEarly effects (06 months)

    Ocular Chemosis, redness, watering, ulcers, photophobia

    Respiratory Distress, pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, pneumothorax.

    Gastrointestinal Persistent diarrhea, anorexia, persistent abdominal pain.

    Genetic Increased chromosomal abnormalities.

    Psychological Neuroses, anxiety states, adjustment reactions

    Neurobehavioral Impaired audio and visual memory, impaired vigilance attention andresponse time, Impaired reasoning and spatial ability,impaired psychomotor coordination.

    Late effects (6 months onwards)

    Ocular Persistent watering, corneal opacities, chronic conjunctivitisRespiratory Obstructive and restrictive airway disease, decreased lung function.

    Reproductive Increased pregnancy loss, increased infant mortality, decreasedplacental/fetal weight

    Genetic Increased chromosomal abnormalities

    Neurobehavioral Impaired associate learning, motor speed, precision

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    Union Carbide side of story

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    Union Carbide side of story

    In 1984, Union Carbide reported sales of $9.5billion, reflecting its position as one of the

    largest industrial companies in the United States

    and the world. In 1984, Union Carbide India Limited was

    celebrating its 50th anniversary. UCIL had sales

    of about $200 million annually. It operated 14plants, and was organized into five operating

    divisions with 9,000 employees.

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    Union Carbide side of story

    In the late 1960's, operations at Bhopal packaged thepesticide Sevin, which was then considered as anenvironmentally-preferred alternative to DDT, aninsecticide now restricted by the U.S. Environmental

    Protection Agency. The process, which reacted methyl isocyanate withanother compound, was considered the leadingtechnology for producing Sevin and another pesticide,

    Temik. Ultimately, in the late 1970s those government

    objectives led to the construction of a plant formanufacturing methyl isocyanate at Bhopal

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    Union Carbide side of story

    Responding to the Press The first press conference was relatively short.

    In the weeks and months that followed, they

    conducted half dozen news conferences inDanbury, some attended by as many as 100

    reporters.

    In the first months alone, stories about Bhopalin the New York Times carried 25 different by-

    lines.

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    Union Carbide side of story

    Contingency Planning and Experience Help Union Carbide had a contingency plan for

    emergencies

    the quality and integrity of Union Carbidepeople

    the diverse skills combined in the Bhopal crisis

    team They also had more than a decade of experience

    with methyl isocyanate without incident

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    Union Carbide side of story

    Myth vs. reality A very shaky basis for extrapolating casualty

    estimates has been the number of Indianclaimants for damagesa number that has beenas high as 500,000

    Television channels right after the disastershowed many people with bandaged eyes

    Almost from the beginning, there have beenhorrendous speculations about the long-termimpact of the disaster

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    Union Carbide side of story

    Fall of Union Carbide The contemporary Union Carbide Corporation

    is a different company from what it was at thetime of the Bhopal incident in 1984. It is asmaller company.

    In 1992, its 75th anniversary year, the companyspun off its industrial gases division to

    stockholders Gone are the metals, consumer products, and

    other diverse businesses.

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    POSSIBLE CAUSES

    The post-accident analysis of the process showed thatthe accident started when a tank containing methyl

    isocyanate (MIC) leaked .

    It is presumed that the scientific reason for the accident

    at Bhopal is that water entered the tank where about 40cubic meters of MIC was stored.

    When water and MIC mixed, an exothermic chemical

    reaction started, producing a lot of heat . . The reason was that the high moisture content

    (aerosol) in the discharge when evaporating, gave rise

    to a heavy gas which rapidly sank to the ground.

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    Letter to all employeesAn Open Letter to All Employees, on the Tragedy in Bhopal, India 18 Years Ago

    Note: This letter was posted for all Dow Employees on Dow's Intranet.

    Midland, MI - November 28, 2002

    Dear Colleagues,

    December 3rd marks the 18th anniversary of the terrible tragedy that occurred in Bhopal, India. Itwas a tragedy of unprecedented proportions, and no one in industryespecially the chemicalindustryshould ever forget. Indeed, as I have said before, I can still recall the exact moment Iheard the news, and the profound sadness I felt. On December 3, I plan to spend a few quietmoments reflecting on the lessons of Bhopal. As I do so, I will also personally recommit toachieving excellence in Dows environment, health and safety performance, and continuing ourdrive toward Sustainable Development. I encourage every Dow employee to do the same. In caseyou are unfamiliar with what took place in Bhopal 18 years ago, heres a very brief summary:

    * Shortly after midnight on December 3, 1984, methyl isocyanate gas (MIC) leaked from a storage

    tank sited at a pesticide manufacturing facility in Bhopal.* As it leaked from the tank, the gas drifted across the neighbouring communities with devastatingconsequences. According to the Indian government, some 3,800 people died and thousands morewere injured as

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    Letter contd a direct result of exposure to the lethal fumes. Without a doubt, the tragedy changed our industry

    forever as companies across the globe collectively took on the moral responsibility to preventanything like it from ever happening again. Indeed, the horrific event in Bhopal was the drivingforce for the design and implementation of Responsible Care.

    At the time of the disaster, the Bhopal plant was operated by Union Carbide India Limited(UCIL), a 51 percent affiliate of Union Carbide (Indian government financial institutions owned26 percent of the shares and some 24,000 private Indian citizens owned the balance.)

    As you know, Dow acquired Union Carbides stock on February 6, 2001. And that is why, withthe anniversary of the Bhopal tragedy approaching, it is very likely that Dow will be the focus of

    protests and demonstrations. In particular, we expect the environmental group Greenpeace tointensify their public campaign against us, strengthening their demand that Dow takeresponsibility for the tragedy. To provide some balance to the claims youll likely hear fromGreenpeace over the coming weeks, I wanted to reiterate Dows perspective on this issue. In theeyes of the highest courts of India, the Bhopal case is closed. In 1989 a settlement agreementwas reached between Union Carbide, Union Carbide India Limited and the Indian governmentthrough which Union Carbide paid $470 million in compensation, covering all claims relating tothe incident. In response to public concerns, the Indian Supreme Court reviewed this settlement

    agreement and, in 1991, determined it should standconcluding that it was 'just, equitable andreasonable'. At that point the legal case was closed. So when Dow completed its acquisition ofUnion Carbide stock in February 2001, the subsidiary had no remaining liability for the tragedythat had occurred 16 years previously. The black-and-white legal case is

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    Letter contdI regret for this distractionI realize it can be both disruptive and distressing

    but I hope you can understand why we will not yield to this sort of pressure. Ialso hope you will not let this deter your pride in our company and all that itstands for. The products we produce benefit people around the world,improving their lives each and every day. Our commitment is clear. From ourfar-reaching and voluntary Environment, Health and Safety Goals for 2005 toour 12-point Implementation Plan for Sustainable Development, we at Dow

    will continue to strive to achieve our vision of zero harm to the environment,to our people or to anyone we touch in the value chain. So, on December 3rd,take a moment, to reflect on the tragedy of Bhopal, and to recommit to doingyour part to moving our company ever closer to that vision of zero.

    Thank you for your continued support.

    Sincerely,Michael D. Parker

    President and CEO

    The Dow Chemical Company

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    Chronological Events

    1984Dec 3 The Bhopal Gas TragedyShortly after midnight, methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas leaks froma tank at the UCIL Bhopal plant. Approximately 3,800 peopledie and several thousand other individuals experience permanent

    and partial disabilities.Dec 4 Immediate action

    Word of the disaster is received at Union Carbide headquartersin Connecticut. Chairman and CEO Warren Anderson, alongwith a technical team, depart to India to assist the government in

    dealing with the incident. Upon arrival, Anderson is placedunder house arrest and urged by the Indian government to leavethe country within 24 hours.

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    Chronological Events1985

    Feb Interim reliefUnion Carbide establishes fund for victims of the tragedythe (UCC) Employees'Bhopal Relief Fund, which collects more than $120,000.

    UCC sends more medical equipment to Bhopal.

    Mar Study LaunchedUCC launches disaster program to study effects of over-exposure to MIC.

    Bhopal Gas Leak ActGovernment of India enacts the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Act that enables theGovernment of India to act as the legal representative of the victims in claims arisingof or related to the Bhopal disaster.

    Cause of the incident

    UCC Technical team reports that a large volume of water was introduced in to theMIC tank and triggered a reaction that resulted in the gas release. Independently, acommittee of experts for the Indian government arrives at the sameconclusion.AprUnion Carbide offers $7 million interim reliefUCC offers $5 million in relief for victims before the U.S. District Court, bringingtotal to date to $7 million.

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    Chronological EventsGovernment of India rejects Union Carbide relief

    Government of India rejects UCC offers of aid for Bhopal victims.June Additional Aid

    UCC funds participation of Indian medical experts in meetings to obtaininformation and the latest medical treatment techniques forvictims.JulyAdditional AnalysisCore samples confirm water triggered reaction that led to gas release.

    1986Jan Union Carbide funds hospital

    Union Carbide offers $10 million to the Indian government for building ahospital to aid the victims in Bhopal.

    Mar Union Carbide proposes $350 million as settlement for victims andfamilies

    Union Carbide proposes a settlement amount of $350 million that willgenerate a fund for Bhopal victims of between $500-600 million over 20years. Plaintiffs US attorneys endorse amount.

    May Bhopal litigation transferred to IndiaU.S. District Court Judge transfers all Bhopal litigation to India. Decision isappealed.

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    Chronological Events1987

    Jan U.S. Court of Appeals affirms transfer of litigation to IndiaThe court rules that UCIL is separate entity, owned, managed and operatedexclusively by Indian citizens in India.

    Mar Government of India closes vocational technical centerThe Government of India closes and razes the Bhopal Technical andVocational Training Center built by Arizona State University after

    determining that Union Carbide Corporation supplied funds for the project.Aug Union Carbide announces humanitarian relief

    Union Carbide offers an additional $4.6 million in humanitarian interim relieffor immediate rehabilitation of Bhopal victims.

    1988

    JanDecLitigation in IndiaThroughout 1988, arguments and appeals before the Indian Courts took placeregarding compensation for the victims. In November, the Supreme Courtasks the Government and UCC to reach a settlement, telling both sides tostart with a clean slate.

    May New evidence on causation

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    Chronological Events1989

    Feb Final settlement at $470 millionUnion Carbide makes full payment

    May Supreme Court of India renders opinionDec Government of India to act on behalf of victims

    1990

    JanDecSupreme Court of India proceedings aim to overturn settlementNov List of victims to be compensated preparedDecSupreme Court

    Hearings concludeCourt concludes review of petitions seeking to overturn settlement.

    1991

    Oct Supreme Court confirms the settlement and closes legal proceedings

    1992Apr Union Carbide sets up Trust fund1993Oct U.S. Supreme Court denies hearing on legal standing

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    Chronological Events1994

    Apr Union Carbide to sell stake in Union Carbide IndiaLimited

    Nov Union Carbide completes sale

    Dec Union Carbide fulfills initial commitment

    1995-1999Building of the Hospital charitable trust

    2001

    Hospital opens to public

    2004

    July Supreme Court of India orders release of extra settlementfunds to victims

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    IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRAGEDY

    HUMAN AND WILDLIFE

    1. Following the disaster on December 2nd-3rd 1984, of the800,000 people living in Bhopal at the time, 2,000 diedimmediately.

    2. Today, well over 120,000 chronically ill survivors are indesperate need of medical attention and an estimated 10 to 15people are dying every month from exposure-related illnesses.

    3. About 7,000 animals were injured, of which about one thousandwere killed.

    4. Apart from the physical disability inflicted on many, a largenumber of people lost their jobs as the Union Carbide factoryshut down its operations immediately after the disaster

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    IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRAGEDY

    HAZARDOUS WASTESPeople living in the vicinity of the Union Carbide Ltd in

    Bhopal are scared of the 'Hazardous Waste' lying in

    the factory compound. There is a growth of high grass

    and bushes in the compound, if it catches fire then the

    toxic fumes and gases will be emitted out of the waste.

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    IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRAGEDY

    GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION1.The ground water had high levels of theorganochlorine compounds like Chloroform,Chlorobenzene, 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene,

    etc.2.Long-term chronic exposure to mixtures of

    toxic synthetic chemicals and heavy metalsis also likely to have serious consequences

    for the health and survival of the localpopulation.

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    IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRAGEDY

    SOIL CONTAMINATION1.High levels of chloroform and

    dichloromethane rendered the land uselesswith regards to agriculture and also created

    a host of health problems to the residents.2.The vegetables grown in the interior of a

    residential area opposite to the front gate ofthe factory had the ability to absorb these

    toxic chemicals and transfer to the nextlevel of a food chain, which may be eitherherbivore or an omnivore, like humanbeings.

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    IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRAGEDY

    ORGANISATIONAL IMPACT1.Immediately after the disaster, UCC had to

    close operations at UCIL.

    2.UCC had to work hard to restore its taintedimage.

    3.The incident didnt affect the world the wayit should have.

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    IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRAGEDY

    LEGAL IMPLICATIONS1.In 1985, the government of India filed acivil suit against Union Carbide in FederalDistrict Court in New York City.

    2. The Indian government filed suit in Indiafor an unspecified amount and later saidclaims would amount to $3 billion.

    3.In Feb. 1989, four years after the tragedy,the Indian Supreme Court found itselfconfronted by activists in India.

    4.The Court directed a settlement of $470million and nullified criminal charges.

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    Steps taken by UCC and IndianGovernment

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    Steps taken by UCC

    Closed similar plant producing Methylisocyanate in Virginia

    CEO, Warren Anderson accepts responsibility

    and promised immediate relief Different teams sent urgently to the site.

    Investigation team sent to study the cause of the

    incident.

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    Contd

    Faced the media, admitted the incident was adisaster on behalf of the company

    Special investigation team from US, differentexperiments carried out

    Reports of the cause were declared to th e court

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    Steps taken by the Indian Government

    Medical Rehabilitation

    Social Rehabilitation

    Economic Rehabilitation

    Environmental Rehabilitation

    Judicial and Administrative Rehabilitation

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    Relief at a glance

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    Contd

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    Social Rehabilitation

    Widow pension till final compensation wasmade

    Orphans kept till they became adults

    Free milk to 71280 beneficiaries daily 12 schools constructed and 6 repaired

    2486 free houses were constructed

    Huge amount spent on proper water supply

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    Social rehabilitation

    Summary

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    Economic rehabilitation

    Created new posts to expedite the process Industrial training institute opened, 8000 people

    benefited

    42 work sheds opened, given to NGOs, worklike making toys, stitching etc.

    152 Industrial sheds opened, given to private

    entrepreneurs

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    Environmental rehabilitation

    Severe environmental losses and ecologicaldamage

    Development off green belts

    Constructing childrens park Constructing and covering of nullahs and

    drainage systems

    Laying of roads and streets

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    Environmental rehabilitation

    Lighting in the streets

    Construction of smokeless chullahs

    Conversion of dry/open latrines into water flush

    latrines

    Construction of Sulabh Sauchalayas

    Amount spent till now Rs. 2580.34 Cr

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    Judicial and administrative rehabilitation

    Special administrative cell was created Various departments were also created to ensure the

    proper co-ordination

    Summary

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    Judicial and administrative rehabilitation

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    Medical rehabilitation

    23 Health institutions established

    Average patients attended in OPD was 4127

    Door step facilities for chronically ill patients

    Expenditure was around Rs.226.73

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    Summary of the rehabilitations

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    Recommendations

    Rationalization of Societal Impact ofChemical Accidents

    General Conference Recommendations

    Recommendations applicable toFor Governments

    For Industries

    For communities

    For engineering and business universities

    For the media

    R ti li ti f S i t l I t f

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    Rationalization of Societal Impact of

    Chemical Accidents

    SocietalImpact N

    Case (i) = 1

    Case (ii) > 1 Case (iii) < 1

    = 1

    > 1

    < 1

    Number of fatalities, N

    Societalimpact

    RiskNeutral

    Risk

    Averse

    RiskProne

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    General Conference Recommendations

    Information about the tragedy should be made public.

    A fresh and time-bound study of those still suffering and theiroff-springs

    A memorial with a museum housing the details about thetragedy, medical treatment and the rehabilitation, laws enacted

    worldwide, lessons learned, photos and artifacts of the victimsbe built at the site.

    National and International Organizations should collaborate toprovide help and guidance regarding treatment of the victimsand clean-up of the contaminated site.

    The tragedy and the lessons learnt from it must be taught toengineers, medical students and business students alike.

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    Recommendations for Governments

    Countries with weak safety and environmentalenforcements should strengthen the same

    Standardization and consistency of countries

    Similar accidents occurring subsequently shouldbe treated with similar seriousness

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    Recommendations Applicable to Industry

    Demonstrate commitment to safety at allleadership levels

    Implement safety management systems andwork towards a 'zero accident' goal

    Share information about chemical releases withthe local authorities and community

    Research and development of inherently safer

    designs in new plants and expansion of theexisting ones

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    Recommendations Applicable to Communities

    Be aware of potential hazards posed by localindustry and become familiar with the same

    Collaborate with the local management to

    educate themselves better to handle sucheventualities

    R d ti A li bl t E i i

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    Recommendations Applicable to Engineeringand Business Universities

    Ensure that students receive the basic educationnecessary to support a future career safely

    managing industrial hazards

    Perform research on new technologies andmanagement practices to support the safety

    improvements of the future

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    Recommendations Applicable to Media

    Present balanced coverage of good andsubstandard practices related to safety in

    industry

    Help educate the public about proper actions totake in the event of an emergency

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    The tragedy still continues