Benthic(Macroinvertebrate( Ecology(&(Identification .Benthic(Macroinvertebrate(Ecology(&(Identification

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Benthic Macroinvertebrate Ecology & Identification

Susan F. CushmanHobart & William Smith Colleges

Geneva, NYcushman@hws.edu

315-781-3599

mailto:cushman@hws.eduhttp://fli.hws.edu/

Outline

I. Reason to study, definition, identifying characteristics

II. Sampling protocolIII. Identification of major groupsIV. Tier 2 analysisV. Stream habitat for macroinvertebratesVI. Aquatic food webs

Outline

I. Reason to study, definition, identifying characteristics

II. Sampling protocolIII. Identification of major groupsIV. Tier 2 analysisV. Stream habitat for macroinvertebratesVI. Aquatic food webs

Why Macroinvertebrates?

Provide an integrated picture of stream chemistry (water quality), physical habitat, and environmental change

Easy to collect and identify to determine potential impact

Inexpensive equipment Assessment models are easy to understand Great activity to get kids involved with!

Definition

A macroinvertebrate is the term used for invertebrate fauna that can be captured by a 500- m net or sieve.

This includes arthropods (insects, mites, scuds and crayfish), molluscs (snails, limpets, mussels and clams), annelids (segmented worms), nematodes(roundworms), and platyhelminthes (flatworms).

(Hauer and Resh, 1996. Methods in Stream Ecology, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.)

PresenterMany Ecologists use net sizes 125-250micrometers due to early life stages being much smaller than 500, and therefore would pass through the net.

BMI Lifecycles

Larval aquatic forms Spend most of their juvenile life underwater

Live multiple years in water

Incomplete Metamorphosis Complete Metamorphosis

Basic Anatomy

Outline

I. Reason to study, definition, identifying characteristics

II. Sampling protocolIII. Identification of major groupsIV. Tier 2 analysisV. Stream habitat for macroinvertebratesVI. Aquatic food webs

Macroinvertebrate Protocol

Take one benthic sample per visit Disturb debris along diagonal transect for 5 mins Place contents of net in pan for inspection

D-net sampling

Outline

I. Reason to study, definition, identifying characteristics

II. Sampling protocolIII. Identification of major groupsIV. Tier 2 analysisV. Stream habitat for macroinvertebratesVI. Aquatic food webs

Major Group Analysis

Major Group: EphemeropteraCommon name: Mayflies

Tier 2 Major Group

PresenterElongate body with 6 legs, distinct head, thorax and abdomen; 2 or 3 tails on abdomenFeathery gills on dorsal side of abdominal segmentsWing pads present attached from thorax, may cover part of abdomen

Major Group: PlecopteraCommon name: Stoneflies

Tier 2 Major Group

PresenterInsect with 3 body parts head, thorax, abdomen, 6 legs originating from thorax, distinct headWing pads present on thorax, may have filamentous gills at the intersection of legs and thorax, but NEVER on abdomenTwo tails

Major Group: TrichopteraCommon name: Caddisflies

Tier 2 Major Group

PresenterInsect larvae with 6 legs originating from thorax, distinct head, pigmented exoskeleton (sclerites) on all or some thorax segmentsMay have feathery gills on the ventral side of abdominal segmentsLast abdominal segment has 2 hooked clawsMay be freeliving or emerge from a case

Major Group: Diptera - ChironomidaeCommon name: Midges

Tier 2 Major Group

PresenterSoft bodied segmented worms

Major Group: ColeopteraCommon name: Beetles

Tier 2 Major Group

PresenterBoth larval and adult stages present in stream samplesLarval forms are elongated and may look like caddisflies but have exoskeleton on all thoracic and abdominal segments whereas caddis only have hardened exoskeleton on thorax

Major Group: OligochaetaCommon name: Aquatic worms

Tier 2 Major Group

PresenterSoft bodied segmented worms

Biotic Index Analysis

Tier 2 Biotic Index

Net spinning Caddisflies

Non - Net spinning Caddisflies

7 10

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: MegalopteraCommon name: Dobsonfly

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent525/water/aquatic/images/14.jpg

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: ColeopteraMinor Group: ElmidaeCommon name: Riffle Beetle

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: ColeopteraMinor Group: PsephenidaeCommon name: Water Penny Beetle

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: ColeopteraCommon name: Other

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: DipteraMinor Group: TipulidaeCommon name: Crane Fly

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: GastropodaCommon name: Gilled Snail

Major Group: GastropodaCommon name: Lunged Snail

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: AmphipodaCommon name: Scud

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: MegalopteraCommon name: Alderfly

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: OdonataCommon name: Damselfy

Dragonfly

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: DipteraMinor Group: SimuliidaeCommon name: Black Fly

Tier Two Biotic Index

Major Group: IsopodaCommon name: Sow Bug

Outline

I. Reason to study, definition, identifying characteristics

II. Sampling protocolIII. Identification of major groupsIV. Tier 2 analysis - PMAV. Stream habitat for macroinvertebratesVI. Aquatic food webs

PMA

PMA

41

03

28

19

06

03

00

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

41%

0%

28%

19%

6%

3%

3%

Outline

I. Reason to study, definition, identifying characteristics

II. Sampling protocolIII. Identification of major groupsIV. Tier 2 analysisV. Stream habitat for macroinvertebratesVI. Aquatic food webs

Hierarchical classification of stream habitats

Habitat is made more complex by: Organic matter Large woody debris Rootwads Leaf packs/debris jamsChannel morphology Geologic formations Forces of erosion (undercutting) Slope of the stream Pools, riffles, runs, glides

Landscape influences Slope of the land adjacent to stream Landuse near the stream Low extent of upstream environmental impacts

Habitat Complexity

Large woody debris

-Non-living logs that are found near, hangingover, or in the stream channel

Rootwads

-Living trees that line the streambank, whichprovide streambank stability and habitat forfish and macroinvertebrates

Undercut and eroded banks

Undercut banks are stabilized by roots and provide habitat for fish and macroinvertebrates, while eroded banks have exposed, bare soil that are susceptible to future erosion from storm events and will release sediment into the stream channel.

Pool/Riffle System-Depth-Sediment size-Flow rate

BMI HabitatPreferred habitat varies Lithophilous taxa: stony

substrates Ex. Water penny

(Psephenidae) Sammophilous taxa:

sandy substrate Ex. Tube-building

caddisflies(hydropsychidae)

Burrowing taxa: Ex. Amelytidae mayflies

Xylophilous taxa: wood dwelling Ex. Some beetle larvae

Phytophilous taxa: aquatic plants Ex. Rhyacophila caddisflies

(free-living)

Outline

I. Reason to study, definition, identifying characteristics

II. Sampling protocolIII. Identification of major groupsIV. Tier 2 analysisV. Stream habitat for macroinvertebratesVI. Aquatic food webs

Invertebrate consumers

Feeding Role Shredders

Suspension Filter Collector

Deposit Gatherer

Grazer

Predator

Food Resources, Examples Non-woody CPOM, leaves, fungi, microbiota

Trichoptera, plecoptera, crustacea FPOM, bacteria, sloghed periphyton

Net spinning trich, simuliidae (diptera), ephemeroptera

FPOM, bacteria Ephemeroptera, chironomidae (diptera)

Periphyton, diatoms, biofilms Many ephem, trich; some diptera,

coleoptera Animal prey

Odonata, megaloptera, some Plec, Trich, Dip, Colep

Vertebrate inhabitants of stream ecosystems

Leopard Frog

Green Frog

No. Water snake

Box Turtle

No. two linedsalamander

BlacknoseDace

CreekChub

Rosyside Dace

White Sucker

GreenSunfish

BluegillSunfish

Stream fish: minnows, sunfish, suckers, sculpins

Mottled Sculpin

Benthic Macroinvertebrate Ecology & IdentificationOutlineOutlineWhy Macroinvertebrates?DefinitionBMI LifecyclesBasic AnatomyOutlineMacroinvertebrate ProtocolD-net samplingOutlineMajor Group AnalysisTier 2 Major GroupTier 2 Major GroupTier 2 Major GroupTier 2 Major GroupTier 2 Major GroupTier 2 Major GroupBiotic Index AnalysisTier 2 Biotic IndexTier Two Biotic IndexTier Two Biotic IndexTier Two Biotic IndexTier Two Biotic IndexTier Two Biotic IndexTier Two Biotic IndexTier Two Biotic IndexTier Two Biotic IndexSlide Number 29Slide Number 30Slide Number 31OutlinePMAPMASlide Number 35Slide Number 36OutlineSlide Number 38Habitat ComplexityLarge woody debrisRootwadsSlide Number 42Slide Number 43BMI HabitatOutlineInvertebrate consumersSlide Number 47Slide Number 48Slide Number 49Slide Number 50