BCA 2010 Changes to Swimming Pool Barriers

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Changes to Swimming Pool Barriers

David Kearsley Stuart McLennan

Overview

Why Change? Research Data History of changes BCA 2010 Volume 1 and 2 Changes AS 1926.1 - 2007 - Major Changes Existing Pools built Prior to 1991 Guidance Information and Documentation Contact details

Why Change ?

Why Change?The primary question of interest:

Are the probabilities of drowning different for the different types of pool barriers and how can this be quantified?

Research Data

Research Data

The Studies cited Pitt and Balanda (1991) Queensland: Fenced verses Non fenced pools Stevenson et al (2002) WA: Four sided versus three-sided pool fencing Barker et al (2003) Queensland: Isolations pool fencing (four sided) versus three sided pool fencing (with child safe doors and windows)

Research Data

Pitt and Balanda (1991) This paper looked at the difference in rates of unintentional immersion in pools located in Brisbane for children up to 13 years of age with fences and pools with no fences. Period covered 1984 to 1988

Stevenson et al (2002) The subject of this study was the difference in drowning rates between pools with four sided fencing and pools with three sided fencing where there was no requirement for child safe doors or windows in the residence. Period covered 1988 - 2000

Barker et al (2003) The report analysed Queensland data report by QISU aimed to disentangle the causes of the difference in safety between three and four sided fencing. Period covered 1992 - 2001

Research Data

Each of the reports compares the safety performance of the two types barrier by using relative risk ratio Relative Risk Ratio is the ratio of probabilities of the occurrence of drowning with one type of fence and a second type of fence respectively Given by the expression RR = d2 / d1

Research DataStudy Pool Fence Type 1 Pitt and Balanda (1991) Stevenson et al (2002) Non Fenced Three sided unknown status of doors and windows Three sided + child safe doors and windows Three sided + child safe doors and windows Type 2 Fenced Four sided 3.76 1.78 Relative Risk

Barker et al (2003) Unintended access

Four Sided

2.88

Barker et al (2003) Primary Access Hazard

Four Sided

10.98(Note: All children who drowned where allowed into pool area by parent)

History of change

History of change

The BCA currently references the AS 1926.1 1993 Fencing for swimming pools and AS 1926.2 1995 Location of fencing for private swimming pools. New editions of these standards were published in 2007 by Standards Australia. However the standards were not referenced in the BCA due to differing approaches between jurisdictions on whether childresistant doorsets are permitted to form part of a barrier for an outdoor pool.

History of change

ABCB National Technical Summit in 2009 discussed variations between jurisdictions for swimming pool barriers Included representatives from State and Territory administrations and leading Australian industry groups to progress the Variation Reduction Strategy (VRS). The NTS resolved that the decision on whether to allow the use of childresistant door sets in the BCA, was a matter of public policy This required the direction of the Board of the ABCB. At its meeting in July 2009, the Board adopted the position to: Exclude the use of child-resistant door sets in barriers for outdoor pools in BCA 2010; and Adopt the 2007 editions of the Australian Standards 1926.1 and 1926.2

Victorian Legislation Overview

Building Legislation HierarchySTATE & TERRITORY BUILDING ACTS

STATE & TERRITORY BUILDING REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Administration Appeals Registrations Refurbishments Building standard

TECHNICAL STANDARDS

Building Code of Australia

Takes effect 1 May each year BCA is the communitys minimum standard for new building work Referenced in State & Territory building law Developed by Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB) Amended annually Not best practice To overcome market failure Solutions must be cost effective

Building Code of Australia (BCA)Objective

GuidanceFunctional Statement

Performance RequirementBuilding Solutions

MandatoryMethods of achieving compliance

DTS Provisions

Alternative SolutionDocumentary Evidence Verification Method Comparative Analysis Expert Judgement

Prescriptive measures

Assessment methods

Changes to the Building Code of Australia Volume 1

BCA 2010 Volume 1

Performance Requirement GP1.2

a) A barrier must be provided to a swimming pool and musti. ii. iii. iv. be continuous for the full extent of the hazard; and be of a strength and rigidity to withstand the foreseeable impact of people; and restrict the access of young children to the pool and the immediate pool surrounds; and have any gates and doors fitted with latching devices not readily operated by young children, and constructed to automatically close and latch.

BCA 2010 Volume 1Vic G1.1 Swimming pools a) Safety barriers: A swimming pool associated with a Class 2 or 3 building or Class 4 part of a building or a children's service, with a depth of water more than 300 mm, must have fencing or other barriers in accordance with AS 1926 Parts 1 and 2. b) A child-resistant door set must not be used in a barrier for an outdoor swimming pool. c) A side-hung door forming part of the barrier for an indoor swimming pool must be hung so that, when opening, it only swings away from the pool area. d) A water recirculation system in a swimming pool with a depth of water more than 300 mm must i. for a spa pool, comply with AS 1926.3 except the specified distance between two outlets connected to a common line may be not less than 600 mm; and for all other swimming pools, comply with AS 1926.3.

ii.

BCA 2010 Volume 1Energy Efficiency J7.3 Swimming pool heating and pumpinga) Heating for a swimming pool must be byi. ii. iii. iv. v. a solar heater not boosted by electric resistance heating; or a heater using reclaimed energy; or a gas heater; or a heat pump; or a combination of 2 or more of (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)

b) Where some or all of the heating required by (a) is by a gas heater or a heat pump, the swimming pool must havei. ii. a cover other than when located in a conditioned space; and a time switch in accordance with Specification J6 to control the operation of the heater.

c)

A time switch must be provided in accordance with Specification J6 to control the operation of a circulation pump for a swimming pool.

d) For the purpose of J7.3, a swimming pool does not include a spa pool.

11 BCA 2010 Volume 1 20 Energy Efficiency J7.4 Spa pool heating and pumping til n umust be by a) Heating for a spa pool having a capacity of 680 L or more r4 o 2 ss la C to b) Where some or all of the heating required by (a) is by a gas heater or a heat pump, the ly spa pool must have pp a T O N esswitch must be provided in accordance with Specification J6 to control the c) Ao time D operation of a circulation pump for a spa pool having a capacity of 680 L or more.i. a solar heater; or ii. a heater using reclaimed energy; or iii. a gas heater; or iv. v. a heat pump; or a combination of 2 or more of (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) i. a cover; and ii. a push button and a time switch in accordance with Specification J6 to control the operation of the heater.

Changes to the Building Code of Australia Volume 2

BCA 2010 Volume 2Performance Requirement P 2.5.3 A barrier must be provided to a swimming pool and must a) be continuous for the full extent of the hazard; and b) be of a strength and rigidity to withstand the foreseeable impact of people; and c) restrict the access of young children to the pool and the immediate pool surrounds; and d) have any gates and doors fitted with latching devices not readily operated by young children, and constructed to automatically close and latch.

BCA 2010 Volume 2Clause 3.9.3.0 a) Subject to (b) and (c), Performance Requirement P2.5.3 is satisfied for a swimming pool associated with a Class 1 building, with a depth of water more than 300 mm if it has safety barriers installed in accordance with AS 1926 Parts 1 and 2. b) A child-resistant door set must not be used in a barrier for an outdoor swimming pool. c) A side hung door forming part of the barrier for an indoor swimming pool must be hung so that, when opening, it only swings away from the pool area.

A child-resistant door set is defined as a door set that comprises a door, door frame, self-closing device and self-latching device, that is designed to provide an access way from the building to the swimming pool.

BCA 2010 Volume 2

11 be by a solar heater a)Heating for a swimming pool other than a spa pool must 20 not boosted by electric resistance heating. til L or more must be by b)Heating for a spa pool having a capacity of 680 un ly pp a T O N c)Where some or all s the heating required by (b) is by a gas or heat pump, a of spa pool must have oe Di. a solar heater; or ii. a gas heater; or iii. a heat pump; or iv. a combination of 2 or more of (i), (ii) and (iii). i. a cover; and ii. a push button and a time switch to control the operation of the heater.

Energy Efficiency 3.12.5.7 Heating and pumping of a swimming pool or spa

d)A time switch to control the operation of a circulation pump for a swimming pool other than a spa pool with capacity of less than 680 L.

Major changes to AS1926.1Safety Barriers for Swimming Pools

Major Changes to AS1926

The following are represented on Technical Committee CS-034

Australian Building Codes Board, Australian Industry Group, Australian Institute of Building Surveyors, Australian Safe Communities Foundation, Australian Wire Industry Association, Consumers Federation of Australia, Department of Local Government, Housing and Sport (NT), Department of Local Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation (Queensland), Kidsafe National, National Injury Surveillance Unit Office of Fair Trading NSW Consumer Protection Agency, Planning South Australia, Royal Life Saving Society Australia Swimming Pool and Spa Association of NSW, Swimming Pool and Spa Association of Victoria, Swimming Pool and Spa Association of Western Australia

AS 1926.1 - 2007

Title change Using the word fence in the title is misleading as it is not the only element used to enclose a pool. 1993 version Swimming pool safety Part 1: Fencing for swimming pools 2007 version Swimming pool safety Part 1: Safety barriers for swimming pools

Major changes AS1926AS 1926.1 1993

No definition of what a pool area is.

AS 1926.1 2007

Defines pool area as the area surrounding the pool that is separated from the rest of the allotment by a safety barrier.

Major changes AS1926AS 1926.1 1993

AS 1926.1 2007

Fencing Height 2.3.1 effective fencing height shall be not less than 1.2m

Fencing Height 2.3.1 minimum height of 1200mm will remain but changes to nonclimbable zone have been made

Major changes AS1926AS 1926.1 1993 Figure 2.2 Perpendicular fencing on sloping ground

Major changes AS1926AS 1926.1 2007 Perpendicular fencing dimensions

Major changes AS1926AS 1926.1 1993

AS 1926.1 2007

2.3.2 Perforated material or mesh Chain wire fencing height not less than 2.4m with crank where apertures are greater than 13mm

2.3.3 Perforated material or mesh Chain wire fencing height not less than 1.8m with no crank where apertures are greater than 13mm

Major changes AS1926AS 1926.1 1993

Major changes AS1926

The clear span radii has been changed from 1200mm to 900mm A non climbable zone is defined as a zone consisting of a barrier as well as the associated space within 900mm of the barrier intended to inhibit climbing of the barrier by children. This includes any point along the length of the barrier and its associated space.

Major changes AS1926Boundary Fencing Clause 2.3.1 General

The location of the NCZ shall be on the outside of the fencing, except for a boundary fence. A boundary fence shall be not less than 1800 mm high. The NCZ may be located at the top on the inside of the fencing (see Figures 2.1, 2.2(a) to 2.2(c), 2.3(A) and 2.3(B)).

Major changes AS1926Retaining walls AS1926.1 1993

2400m Height Not more than 15 from vertical

Major changes AS1926Retaining walls AS1926.1 - 2007

1800m Height Includes non climbable zone Not more than 15 from vertical Where fence intersects a retaining wall: Must have 900mm return; or Overhang by 900mm

Major changes AS1926Balconies AS1926.1 - 2007

Height now 1800mm Now includes non climbable zone If balcony balustrade within NCZ must comply with AS 1926.1

Other Major changes AS1926AS 1926.1 2007

Section 3 Restructure Now performance based on the loadings applied to each section of a barrier when tested. Allows the appendices to be informative and give guidance on how barriers can be tested.

Appendix A - Restructure New testing procedure for pool barriers. Bringing the testing procedure up to date.

Allows qualified testing companies to test the pool barriers using the same loads on the elements of the pool barrier using an approved suitable method other than the same testing regime that can only be completed by one or two companies.

Other Major changes AS1926AS 1926.1 2007

Above ground pools Further clarified For aboveground pools, including inflatable pools, the walls of the pool shall be considered an effective barrier provided they comply with Clauses 2.3.1, 2.3.3, 2.3.4 and 2.3.5. A barrier shall be placed around ladders at the access point to an aboveground pool. Ladders and filters shall be located away from the non-climbable zone (NCZ) so as not to compromise the barrier. NOTE: Aboveground pools pose a particular hazard because of the tendency to install climbableobjects against the pool, which may used for access into the pool.

Other Major changes AS1926AS 1926.1 1993

AS 1926.1 2007

Appendix D Strength Test For Flexible Materials And Components has been deleted and replaced with Section 3 under clause 3.3.2 Bringing into line with the new performance based Section 3

New Appendix D Examples Of Pool Fences Broad guide to some of the main constructional criteria that some of the more common types of fencing will have to meet in order to satisfy this Standard

AS1926.1 2007 Testing In SituStrength of Posts and Footings

Each post and footing shall withstand a horizontal 330 N force at 1200 mm above finished ground level. After loading, there shall be no permanent damage to any post, The footings shall not loosen to impair the effectiveness of the barrier and any gate shall meet the requirements of Clauses 2.5.3, 2.5.4 and 3.4. This test can be conducted in the field by fastening one end of a calibrated spring balance to the post 1200 mm above ground level and pulling on the other end of the balance until a load of 33 kg is achieved. After application of the loa...