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  • 1.Restrictions on use of copyrighted materials. Authorized Use: You may save one copy onto your hard drive, and utilize the copy on this ash drive. Un- authorized Use: Licensee shall not knowingly permit anyone other than the single Authorized User (purchaser) to use this Licensed Material. Modication of Licensed Materials: Licensee shall not modify or create a derivative work of the Licensed Materials without the prior written permission of Licensor, please contact us at goalqpc.com. Removal of Copyright Notice: Licensee may not remove, obscure or modify any copyright or other notices included in the Licensed Materials. Commercial Purposes: Other than as specically permitted in this Agreement, Licensee may not use the Licensed Materials for commercial purposes, including but not limited to the sale of the Licensed Materials or bulk reproduction or distribution of the Licensed Materials in any form.

2. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUNTips for Use:- This Flash Drive is fully searchable andindexed. Click on the left vertical tabcalled Bookmarks, (if its not currentlyvisible, go to the top menu and choose:View - Navigation Tabs - Bookmarks) anduse the live links to navigate throughthe index of each different title. - If youre looking for specic key termsor tools, choose Edit - Search fromthe menu, type in a keyword, and itwill provide you a list of links wherethat term is located. 3. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN 4. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN 5. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN 6. The BLACK BELT Memory JoggerTM A Pocket Guide for Six Sigma Success Six Sigma AcademyFirst EditionGOAL/QPC 7. The Black Belt Memory Jogger 2002 by GOAL/QPC and Six Sigma Academy.All rights reserved.Reproduction of any part of this publication without thewritten permission of GOAL/QPC is prohibited.Six Sigma is a federally registered trademark of Motorola, Inc.MINITAB is a trademark of Minitab, Inc.Six Sigma AcademyTherese Costich-Sicker, Project ManagerPaul Sheehy, WriterPhilip Samuel, Ph.D., Copy EditorDaniel Navarro, WriterTerry Ziemer, Ph.D., Copy EditorRobert Silvers, WriterVictoria Keyes, WriterShannon Godden, Copy EditorJohn Dziark, Copy EditorTylar Burton, Copy EditorMarcia Lemmons, Copy EditorDeb Dixon, Writer GOAL/QPCDaniel Picard, EditorDanielle Page, ProductionMichele Kierstead, Cover Design, Graphics, and LayoutBob Page, Project ManagerGOAL/QPC12B Manor Parkway, Suite 300, Salem, NH 03079-2862Toll free: 800-643-4316 or 603-893-1944Fax: 603-870-9122E-mail: service@goalqpc.comWeb site: www.goalqpc.comPrinted in the United States of AmericaFirst Edition 10 9 8 7 6 5 4ISBN 1-57681-043-7The Black Belt Memory Jogger 8. Acknowledgments Our sincerest thanks to the people and organizations who contributed suggestions and encouragement or who gave us permission to adapt their charts, tables, and other information.We are especially grateful to a long-time friend and supporter of GOAL/QPC, Larry Smith of Ford Motor Company, who provided the inspiration for this book.We are indebted to the following reviewers who ensured that the finished book aligned with expectations: Lyn Dolson Pugh, Katherine Calvert, Michael G. Thibeau, Dow Chemical Company; Larry R. Smith, Ford Motor Company; Marc Richardson, JAE Oregon, Inc.; Kristi Brown, Wal-Mart; David M. Oberholtzer, Raytheon Company; Richard K. Bergeron, Seagate Inc.We are also grateful for those who shared with us their vision for this book: Raj Gohil, AT&T Corporate Quality; Rip Stauffer, BlueFire Partners; Jeff Karl, Bombadier Regional Aircraft; C. Gregory Brown, Citigroup; Randy Fach, Dove Consulting; Kui-Sun Yim, Ford Motor Company; Cheryl Rienzo, Honeywell, Inc.; David Fogelson, Honeywell, Inc.; Eric Jakubowski, Motorola, Inc.; John Thomasson, NCR Corporation; Russell Soukup, Pemstar, Inc.; Bill Fechter, Ph.D., Productivity Inc.; Jay P. Patel, Quality & Productivity Solutions, Inc.; Allen C. Rothman, Quad Tech, Inc.; Lynda Owens, Neal Mackertich, Raytheon Company; Swaminathan Balachandran, University of WisconsinPlatteville. The Black Belt Memory Jogger 9. Foreword Six Sigma programs have made tremendous contribu- tions to many organizations worldwide, and we at GOAL/QPC anticipate that the long-term benefits will accrue as more organizations learn and apply Six Sigma.However, as Six Sigma becomes more commonplace, it will be accompanied by increased pressure to quickly train Black Belts and to produce results. For some prospective Black Belts, the learning challenge will be daunting and the post-training performance expecta- tions even more so.To help support new and current Black Belts, we de- cided to create a Memory Jogger specifically for their needs. We partnered with Six Sigma Academy and melded their extensive knowledge and experience in Six Sigma tools and methods with GOAL/QPCs skill in producing Memory JoggerTM pocket guides. In pre- paring this guide, we are assuming that users are familiar with DMAIC processes, the basics of quality management, and the basic quality tools found in The Memory JoggerTM II.The Black Belt Memory JoggerTM serves double duty as a training document for new Black Belts and a ready reference to support their real-world performance.With the help of many reviewers, the experts and practitioners who worked on this project have as- sembled the necessary information to support success- ful Black Belt performance. We trust you will agree.Bob Page GOAL/QPCThe Black Belt Memory Jogger 10. Table of Contents Introduction .................................................................. 1 Roles and Responsibilities .......................................... 7 Project Management .................................................. 11 Critical To Flowdown ............................................... 19 Basic Statistics ............................................................. 33 Process Maps .............................................................. 49 Rolled Throughput Yield .......................................... 55 Sigma Values .............................................................. 61 Cause & Effect/Fishbone Diagram ......................... 65 Measurement Systems Analysis .............................. 73 Capability Indices ...................................................... 95 Graphical Analysis .................................................. 101 Multi-Vari Charts ..................................................... 127 Central Limit Theorem ............................................ 139 Confidence Intervals ............................................... 143 Hypothesis Testing .................................................. 149 Transforming Data ................................................... 157 Correlation and Regression .................................... 167 Binary Logistic Regression ..................................... 179 Design of Experiments ............................................ 185 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis ....................... 211 Control Charts .......................................................... 221 Total Productive Maintenance and Preventative Maintenance ............................................................. 237 Control Plan .............................................................. 241The Black Belt Memory Jogger 11. The Black Belt Memory Jogger 12. IntroductionWhat is Six Sigma? The Six Sigma methodologies are a business philosophy and initiative that enables world-class quality and continuous improvement to achieve the highest level of customer satisfaction. Metrics are established that align an organizations strategic goals and values to that of their customers needs and expectations. Sigma () represents a unit of measurement that designates the distribution or spread about the mean (average) of a process. In business, a sigma value is a metric that represents how well a process is performing and how often a defect is likely to occur. The higher the sigma value, the less variation and fewer defects the process will have. Six Sigma is the new standard of excellence at only 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO).How does it work? The Six Sigma philosophy uses data and statistical tools to systematically improve processes and sustain process improvements. Process metrics are evaluated based on a comparison of average and variation to performance specifications or targets. The methodology is a project-focused approach consisting of five phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. Projects are selected and Defined from business, operational, and customer needs, based on their linkage to executive strategies. In the Measure phase, tools are applied to validate the measurement system and to characterize the process. In the Analyze and Improve phases, sources of variation are identified, a statistical relationship between the process input and2002 GOAL/QPC, Six Sigma AcademyIntroduction1 The Black Belt Memory Jogger 13. output variables is established, and the process performance is optimized. The Control phase applies traditional and statistical tools to sustain process improvements. Emphasis is placed on controlling the key process inputs to consistently achieve key process outputs. The DMAIC ModelWhat is it? The DMAIC model is a set of tools outlined in five phases that are used to characterize and optimize both business and industrial processes. Each project must complete the five phases in chronological order.Define Phase In the Define phase, the customer needs are stated and the processes and products to be improved are identified.Steps Activities/ToolsOutput(s) Create Define process to Problem statement problemimprove Project scope statement Define project Project goalsobjectives Identify projectstakeholders Identify customersIdentify CT Trees Identified customer CTQs needsDefine Identify performance Gap analysis performance measures Business impact standards Financial analy