BaSulTa Situationer and Summary Findings

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One of the documents on the Basulta research conducted by Ateneo de Zamboanga University

Text of BaSulTa Situationer and Summary Findings


    Basilan, Sulu & TawiBasilan, Sulu & Tawi--tawi tawi (BaSulTa)(BaSulTa)

    Based on a Study conducted by the

    Ateneo Research Center Ateneo de Zamboanga University

    With inputs from Tabang Mindanaw and Assisi Development Foundation



    What is the Situation? What explains the Situation? Problems and Challenges

    What can be done? Opportunities for Intervention

    Moving forward : Some Proposals


    To present the socio-economic/human security situation of BaSulTa vis-a-vis the ARMM and Mindanao;

    To present the economic development situation of BaSulTa for possible use of industries and business, and government;

    Conduct an assessment of governance capacity of local government units and other institutions such as the church and the civil society groups as development delivery mechanisms.


  • Basilan



  • Basilan

    Has seven (7) municipalities and one (1) city, Isabela as capital.

    Became part of Zamboanga in 1901. Chavacanos and Visayans settled in Isabela to work in the rubber plantations.

    A city in 1948 and a province in 1973. Home to a mix of Muslim and Christian population who became

    polarized during the 2001 anti-Christian provocations of the Abu Sayyaf.

  • Basilan Profile Ethnic groupings: (41.3%) Yakans, (23.0%) Tausug, (11.9%) Chavacano, (10.1%) Samals, (14%) mix of Visayans, Cebuanos & Badjaos.

    Christians own 75% of the land, and ethnic Chinese controls 75% of the local trade.

    More than half of live in poverty and are mostly agricultural workers, fisher folks and farmers.

    Bangsa Moro guerillas actively operated in Basilan in the 70s.

    In 1991, the Abu Sayyaf was founded by Abdulrajak Janjalaniwith members recruited from the young alienated Muslims who found no hope or opportunity for advancement within the stream of Philippine society.

  • Sulu

    The Sultanate of Sulu was recognized as a political entity by sovereign nations as early as the 14th century. Before the advent of Islam, Sulu had datus or chieftains with defined rights and privileges.

    Agriculture-based, with large areas planted to coconut, cassava, rice and corn. Coffee and fruit trees were also cultivated.

    Sulu waters is a rich fishing ground for various marine resources.

  • Sulu Profile Has 18 municipalities with more than 400 islands and islets from the tip of Zamboanga toward Borneo; Jolo is the capital town.

    The Tausugs (people of the current) form the biggest segment (85.27%) of the provincial population of 619, 668. The smaller ethnic groups (Badjaos, Samals, etc.) are generally socially discriminated.

    Has the most number of private armed groups in the country.

    Has consistently posted the highest poverty incidence in 1997 and 2000.

  • Tawi-tawi

    Was separated from Sulu and created as a separate province on 11 September 1973.

    Its water resource area is many times larger than its land area and is one of the richest fishing grounds in the country. It is the habitat of the prized tuna and is the primary producer of seaweeds.

    Despite the absence of large agricultural land, the province has rich fertile soil that produces coconut and cassava, its two major crops.

  • Tawi-tawi Profile

    Has more than 307 islands including Cagayan de Mapun island, Turtle island and Tawi-tawi island groups; Has ten (10) island municipalities with Bongao as capital town.

    95 percent of the population are Muslim while the remaining five percent is a mixture of Christian and other religions.

    By ethnic grouping, Sama (84%) constitutes the biggest group while the rest (16%) are a mix of Tausugs, Jama Mapun and others.

    Tawi-tawi ranked as the 3rd poorest province in 2000 from #40 in 1997 indicating a drastic fall in income level among its poor & non-poor population groups.


  • Human Development Indicators

    Mali 0.326Mali 0.326Chad 0.379Chad 0.379

    Guinea 0.425Guinea 0.4250.7530.753--0.3780.3780.3110.3110.420.42

    HDIHDI(PHDR, 2000; HDR, 2004)(PHDR, 2000; HDR, 2004)

    (HDI Bottom 2 (HDI Bottom 2 countries) Sierra countries) Sierra


    83/7783/77--76/7776/7777/7777/7768/7768/77HDI RankHDI Rank(province (province PHDR, 2000:; PHDR, 2000:; HDR, 2004)HDR, 2004)

    Intl Intl ComparisonComparisonRP


  • Human Development Indicators

    Chad 27Chad 27Togo 54Togo 54

    868661.661.611.411.429.929.955.955.9Families with Access to waterFamilies with Access to water(APIS, 1999. WDI, 2000; HDR, (APIS, 1999. WDI, 2000; HDR, 2004)2004)

    Sudan 64Sudan 64Lesotho 64Lesotho 64

    29296363------Infant Mortality Infant Mortality (HDR, 2004)(HDR, 2004)

    Gambia 29.6Gambia 29.6Gabon 28.1Gabon 28.1

    7.47.429.729.728.628.618.118.1Probability at birth for not Probability at birth for not surviving to age 40 cohort surviving to age 40 cohort (PHDR, 2002; HDR, 2004)(PHDR, 2002; HDR, 2004)

    Senegal 52.7Senegal 52.7Benin 50.7Benin 50.769.869.857.457.450.850.852.352.360.260.2

    Life Expectancy at BirthLife Expectancy at Birth(HDR, 2004)(HDR, 2004)

    78.6 M78.6 M--322,317322,317619,668619,668332,628332,628Population (2000)Population (2000)

    Intl Intl ComparisonComparisonRP


  • Human Development Indicators

    --33.9633.9642.842.829.729.734.334.3Cohort Survival RateCohort Survival Rate(PHDR, 2002)(PHDR, 2002)

    ------77.777.782.182.1% Basic Enrollment Rate% Basic Enrollment Rate



    School enrollment of 6School enrollment of 6--12 12 yrs. old among the yrs. old among the poorest poorest (WB, 2003)(WB, 2003)

    Chad 54.2Chad 54.2Sudan 40.1Sudan 40.1Haiti 48.1Haiti 48.1

    7.47.4--47.347.342.342.351.951.9Adult Functional IlliteracyAdult Functional Illiteracy(age 15+(age 15+))(PHDR, 2002, HDR, 2004)(PHDR, 2002, HDR, 2004)

    ------ cent HS GraduatePer cent HS Graduate depth Poverty depth (PHDR, 2002)(PHDR, 2002)

    P 48,816P 48,816(MM)(MM)

    P 11,349P 11,349P 7,850P 7,850P13,193P13,193Ave. Annual Per CapitaAve. Annual Per CapitaIncome (FIES in PHDR, 2002)Income (FIES in PHDR, 2002)

    Zambia 72.9Zambia 72.9Malawi 65.3Malawi 65.3

    36.936.962.962.975.375.392926363Poverty Incidence Poverty Incidence (NCSB, 2003, HDR, 2004)(NCSB, 2003, HDR, 2004)

    Intl Intl ComparisonComparisonRP


  • Average Monthly Household Income


    Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent

    Below 1000 6 6.6 5 5.5 4 4.4

    P1,000 -P1,999 16 17.6 12 13.2 8 8.9

    P2,000 -P3,999 42 46.2 24 26.4 27 30

    P 4,000 - 5,999 11 12.1 20 22 12 13.3

    P6,000 - 7,999 5 5.5 6 6.6 8 8.9

    P8,000 - 9,999 4 4.4 11 12.1 3 3.3

    P10,000 -above

    4 4.4 12 13.2 21 23.3

    No Income 2 2.2 1 1.1 7 7.8

    No Fixed income

    1 1.1 0 0 0 0

    Total 91 100 91 100 90 100

    ADZU/TM Survey, 2004


  • Community level (Micro)


    From fishing 400 pesosFrom mat weaving 600 pesos (2 mats)From day labor 50 pesosWashing clothes daily 600 pesos From tailoring 300 pesos

    Average monthly income of Badjao residents in Ponduhan, Siasi :

    Number of Families

    Average Mo. Income per HH


    104 PhP 752 95

    6 none 5

    Total 110 PhP 752 100

    Source: Social Action Center AVJ, Baseline Survey-Ponduhan, June 2004

  • Human Resource (Mostly mainland barangays):

    Educational Attainment

    Basilan Sulu Tawi-Tawi

    N N N

    Elementary 51 (21.43) 35 (13.72) 39 (16.45)

    High School 65 (27.31) 70 (27.45) 69 (29.11)

    College 94 (39. 5) 95 (37.25) 100 (42.19)

    Graduate 3 1 2

    Vocational course

    2 4 0

    None 23 (9.66) 19 (7.45) 1 (0.42)

    No answer 0 31 26

    Total 238 255 237

    ADZU/TM Survey, 2004


  • Educational Attainment of Adults

    Educational AttainmentFrequency Percentage

    Elementary Level 6 2.1College Level 1 0.3None 282 97.6

    Educational Attainment of Youth

    All youth (100%) are not in school at present. Only five (5) or7% of the total youth population of 74 had gone to school and their highest level of attainment was elementary grade.

    Community Level (Micro) : Ponduhan, Siasi, Sulu

    Badjao Community

    Source: Social Action Center AVJ, Baseline Survey-Ponduhan, June 2004

  • Population and Health Status

    8.929.728.618.1Probability at birth for not surviving to age 40 cohort

    Haiti 52.6Congo 51.3

    6957.450.852.360.2Life expectancy at Birth

    78M2,412,159322,317619,668332,828Population (2000)

    IntlIntlRPRPARMMARMMTawiTawi--tawitawiSuluSuluBasilan Basilan Indicators Indicators

    Human Development Indicators

    Niger 20Uganda 50

    8761.611.429.955.9Families with Access to water (APIS, 1999; WDI, 2000; HDR, 2002)

    Gabon 60Bolivia 62

    3663---Infant Mortality

  • 1.11 (1)02.