Content page Introduction 1 Motivation 2 Estimation 7 Bill of Material 8 Gratt Chart 9 Linear Responsibility 10 Conclusion 12 Reference 13

Basis of Design

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Page 1: Basis of Design

Content pageIntroduction 1

Motivation 2

Estimation 7

Bill of Material 8

Gratt Chart 9

Linear Responsibility 10

Conclusion 12

Reference 13

Page 2: Basis of Design


There are many universities and colleges all around Malaysia and many of them offer various kind of valuable certificates upon completion of engineering courses. But, only Taylor’s University offers a project based subject to all engineering students including the semester 1 students. This kind of project is definitely essential as it may form a solid foundation in every individual, thus helping them to improve their skills and start thinking as an engineer. This is a group solar boat project so, communication skills are really required to complete this task and everyone has to be participating and sharing their knowledge in order to execute a well-planned project. The main purpose this project is being a part of the program is because many say that engineers are clever but they don’t have proper communicating skills which shows that it’s a major problem in the industry of engineering. The other reason is that we who are going to engineers once our degrees are granted should be able to experience the planning of a project in every aspect. These projects that we will be accomplishing as engineers in the future are way very expensive and impossible to succeed if no serious planning is taken. While we as students, by doing this solar boat project can helps us to conduct research and implement those ideas in a discipline way. This might be troubling the students in having less time to study but we as engineers should be take it positively by thinking that this trains us to manage our time efficiently. We should be thankful to the Engineering Faculty for providing a chance for us to show our talent, creativity and a great combination of skills thus, showing us that the future is always in our hands.

Page 3: Basis of Design

MotivationsPower Transmission Power transmission is an extremely important factor that needs to be considered thoroughly in a project. This is due to the fact that without power transmission, one may be able to gather as much energy as he or she wants but is unable to utilize it effectively without an organized system of power transmission. Therefore, this is a vital part of the solar boat which has been considered very thoroughly by us to obtain the best possible results.The entire idea of the power transmission of our group’s solar boat can be summarized into a simple diagram. (Refer to next page.) Our solar boat uses several energy sources for its power transmission. One of them is transmitting the power electrically. This can be seen in the use of wires. These wires act as a connection between the motor and the solar panels and transmit the current generated by the solar panels to the motor. The motivation of this technology is gained through the observation of how the current generation of engineers utilizes the technology of connecting wires in solar operating devices such as golf carts. Wires are used in this aspect to transfer the current to charge the batteries of the golf carts and this technology is implemented in our solar boat.Not only that, our solar boat uses a unique type of power transmission. It uses a mechanical system of pulley as a form of mechanical energy. This smart brand of technology uses miniature tyres to work in a system of pulley which will aid in the moving of the boat. The usage of the pulley system is obviously in accordance to the usage of a long and strong strand of string which stretches across the lake to prevent the boat from going off course in the lake. This brand of technology can be observed in the mechanics of a cable car. A cable car uses a pulley system which is similar with ours but is of a larger scale to travel between destinations. It cannot be denied that this system of pulley is what prevents the cable car from going off course and also is the main source of mechanical energy to move the cable car.

Propulsion Propulsion is another aspect that cannot be neglected in the design of the solar boat. This is an extremely factor as without propulsion, there will be no movement of the solar boat. Therefore, we as the future engineers have thought of an optimum solution to this challenge, the usage of a motor and a pulley system to propel the boat. A motor functions on the principle of a rotating wire in a magnetic field. A current is passed through the wire so as to allow it to interact with the magnetic field. This will produce a force as the magnetic and electric fields react with one another. This force is what causes the motor to rotate. The motor that we have chosen has the specifications as follow: 6V, 25.3W, a weight of approximately 160g, a brush commutator and the dimensions of 20x20x20cm. The motor is used in the solar boat as a means to get the pulley system attached on the boat moving. This pulley system consisting of two miniature tyres and a strand of long yet strong string will work in a way such that it will propel the boat forward. This is a very unique form of propulsion and will definitely be different from the various other groups’ propulsion aspect. Where we received the motivation of this idea is from the workings of an elevator. An elevator also functions of the basis of a pulley system to move upwards and

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downwards. This form of propulsion is now going to be implemented into our solar boat and will definitely serve as a strong form of propulsion across the lake.

Power GenerationSolar Energy has been very commonly used and now it has been improved to be installed into some products as a source of energy. Eventually the technology of solar will be implemented in most of the product and human activities have been more convenient since the introduction of solar products into the global market. This because solar produces clean and eco-friendly energy while it has unlimited supply unlike the non-renewable source of energy.

There are many types of photo-voltaic solar panel available in the market, for example: monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, the thin film, solar hot water etc. However, a good choice of solar panel can affect the efficiency of the module or panel. Therefore we have to be good in evaluating and compare in choosing the right type of solar panel to accomplish this grand challenge. All types of solar panels has their advantage and disadvantage to be used as the energy source for the solar boat and the below is the comparison of a few times of solar panel.

Type Advantage DisadvantageMonocrystalline Silicon High power to size ratio

Works under cool condition

Long life spend

Very costly

Polycrystalline silicon Works better under hot condition

Cheaper than Monocrstalline Silicon

Lower power to size ratio

Thin Film Cheapest

Good efficiency under hot weather

Lowest power to size ratio

Works weakly under cool weather

The main power generation allowed in this project is the solar power and the only way of gaining this energy is by the use of solar panel. Solar panel is very common nowadays as it is being applied in numerous kinds of products that are being used in human’s daily basis. For this project, we would be using the Thin-Film PV Modules which is also a type of photovoltaic module. This panel uses a much

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thinner level of photovoltaic material then mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline solar panels. The three common materials used in thin film solar panel are Amorphous Silicon, Cadmium Telluride and Copper Indium diSelenide. We chose thin film module as our solar panel because it can be shaped easily and works well in high temperature as well as it can be placed in an indirect sunlight area.

Front of module

Electrical characteristics per Single ModuleMaximum power (Pmax) 12 WattsVoltage at Pmax (Vmp) 16 V

Current at Pmax 800 mAShort-circuit current (Isc) 1.2 AmpsOpen circuit voltage (Voc) 22V


Mechanical Characteristics per Single Module

Dimensions: 925mm(Length) x 325mm(Width) x 22mm(Depth)

Weight: 3.0kg

Solar Cells: 29 cells

Connection: Male and Female Parallel Connectors. 10amp RCA. Corrosion proof.

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Diodes: Schottky reverse protection diode 30 V

Construction: 4 mm Glass Substrate fused directly to cell structure at 550 degrees Centigrade. Coated by evaporation of Aluminium as collector. Final electrical insulation and backing of spray coated, Heat Conductive Polymer to remove heat.

Frame: Anodized Aluminium alloy and allows mounting of multiple number of modules.

Solar Cell Structure

a- Positive point b- Negative point 1- Glass

2- Sn02 layer (cell positive layer, transparent)

3- Amorphous Si Film (laminated by P,I, N junction)

4- Aluminium layer (cell negative layer)

5- UV coating and backing

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Back of module

Page 8: Basis of Design


Weight and size

To be done by peter


Well, we need Arasan’s help

Product Function Dimension Quantity Unit Cost Remarks

Page 9: Basis of Design

Solar Panel For absorption of sunlight to be converted into electrical energy as the power source for the motor

55cmx55cm 1 RM 85 Providing 4 watt of energy

Motor As the source of mechanical energy to provide thrust for the boat to sail on the lake


1 RM 67 Operating at the voltage of 4.5V and power of 4.5 watt

Tyres To transfer energy from the motor to the boat efficiently

Diameter of 3cm

2 RM 5 Including 2 similar round sided pulley, another one with motor and a belt

Raffle string As the main cable to connect the motor to the boat

Roughly 1km

1 RM 30

Body of the boat

A functioning body to provide space to be loaded up for any transportation means

30cm x15cmx10cm

1 RM 20 Will be constructed to be loaded without a motor

Wire As a path to allow electron to flow through the system by connecting the solar panel and the motor

2 m 1 RM 10

Miscellaneous Boxes and pillars to provide physical support and protection

RM 10 Including the motor box and pillars at both side of the lake

Total RM 232

Bill of Material

Gratt Chart

Page 10: Basis of Design

…… I have no idea how to bring the gratt chart in…..

Linear Responsibility Chart

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Tang Ju Yuan

Tan Yi Jin

Gavin Neo

Hung Ming

Lim Li Wen

Choon Zhe Shyi

Brainstorm ideas in relation with the scope.

A rough sketch based on ideas and materials.

Submission of Budget and list of Materials.

Create an estimation based budget and material list.

Submission of Project Proposal.

Find a present solar boat to do background study.

Theoretical Analysis of the Solar Boat.

Expected Power Generation for prototype.

Expected power transmission and propulsion for prototype.Reverse Engineering a present solar boat theoretically.Design Prototype.

Design power generation for prototype.

Design Power Transmission and Propulsion for prototype.Affirm the design theoretically.

Engineering Drawing or sketch.

Early preparation before the constructing prototype.

Construct the shape of prototype.

Construct the power generation for prototype.

Construct the power transmission and propulsion for prototype.Purchasing the required resources.

Test the prototype for technical measures.

Reaffirm the shape.

Reaffirm the power generation.

Reaffirm the power transmission and propulsion.

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Construct the final product.

Asses the project function ability and specification.

Reassess the project.

Final Design check and finalization.

Retest the power generation.

Retest power Transmission and Propulsion.

Engineering Fair.

SYMBOL EXPLANATIONInvolves the designated member.

Member could support or take day off depends on situation.

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In this project the team building among members is the fundamental principle. We play our role in research different aspect such as how the motor works, solar panel, aerodynamic, etc. We believe that solar energy in future can replace the usage of fossil fuel to reduce the disadvantage of the fossil fuel create to the world. In this project, we use solar energy instead non-renewable energy sources to move the boat because it is a clean source of energy and the solar energy is an unlimited energy source. We hope this project will be a great success and replace other energy source in the future.

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ReferenceTo be done by LiwenEveryone please send the link to Liwen.. as in… please be more participating in this project