Basics of rfid blaze automation

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  • 1. Basics of RFID Technology Sridhar Ponugupati Blaze Automation 18 June 2010
  • 2. Q.E.D. Systems Craig K. Harmon President Visit our web sites: and http://www.autoid.org Chair, ASC INCITS T6 (Radio Frequency Identification) - ANS INCITS 256:1999, 2001 Chair, U.S. TAG to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4 RFID Chair, ASC MH 10/SC 8/WG 4, RFID for Returnable Containers Chair, ISO TC 122/WG 4 (Shipping Labels) & ISO TC 122/WG 7 (Product Packaging) Chair, ISO TC 122/104 JWG - Supply Chain Applications of RFID Senior Project Editor ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3 (RFID - Air Interface) JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison Officer to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-R) JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison Officer to the International Air Transport Association (IATA) JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) ASC MH 10/SC 8 Liaison Universal Postal Union (UPU) Physical Encoding Group (PEG) Expert to USPS Strategic Technology Council ISO TC 104 (Freight Containers / RFID) Liaison Officer to JTC 1/SC 31 Project Editor, ISO 18185 (Freight Containers - Electronic Container Seals) Chairman & Project Editor, ANS MH10.8.2 (Data Application Identifiers) Vocabulary Rapporteur to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Project Editor, American Trucking Association (ATA) ADE Work Group AIAG Bar Code, Applications, 2D, Tire, Returnables, and RFID Committees Project Editor, EIA Shipping Label, Product, Product Package, & Component Marking Advisor, U.S. Department of Defense in Migration to Commercial Standards Project Editor, NATO STANAG 2233 (RFID for NATO Asset Tracking) Project Editor Designate (Japan) - ISO/IEC 15459-3 (Unique Identification of Items) Project Editor Designate (Japan) - Technical Report on Direct Part Marking Convenor (CKH) and Secretary (MAH) - INCITS T20 (Real Time Locating Systems) Convenor Designate (MAH) - SC 31/WG 5 (Real Time Locating Systems)
  • 3. Session Description It is unlikely that any technology in the automatic identification and data capture industry has been hyped more than RFID. So what is the truth? What technologies are best suited for which technologies? What is the relationship between regulations in the United States and in other parts of the world? What is the future of that regulation? How to determine which technology is best for you by asking yourself three little questions: "How far?", "How fast?, and "How many?" Learn the answers to these and other questions in this session.
  • 4. What is RFID? RFID is an ADC technology that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track... RFID is fast, reliable, and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item
  • 5. What Constitutes an RFID System? One or more RF tags Two or more antennas One or more interrogators One or more host computers Appropriate software
  • 6. RFID System Components(block diagram) Antenna Reader Asset/Tag Asset Firmware Tag Insert TCP/IP ~ Host Power Application Customers Software API MIS
  • 7. APPLICATION INTERROGATOR RF TAG Tag Physical Memory Decoder AIR Logical Application Program Interface Encoder Memory DEVICE INTERFACE Map COMMANDS Tag COMMANDS APPLICATION COMMANDS Command / Driver Response and APPLICATION Unit Mapping RESPONSES Rules RESPONSES DEVICE RESPONSES Logical Memory Note: The Logical Memory Map in the Tag Physical Memory is given by the Tag architecture and the mapping rules DATA PROTOCOL PHYSICAL in the Tag Driver. All the information in PROCESSOR INTERROGATOR the Logical Memory is represented in the Logical Memory Map ISO/IEC 15961 ISO/IEC 15962 ISO/IEC 15962 ISO/IEC 18000 Annexes
  • 8. RFID Operation Sequence of Communication Host Manages Reader(s) and Issues Commands Reader and tag communicate via RF signal Carrier signal generated by the reader (upon request from the host application) Carrier signal sent out through the antennas Carrier signal hits tag(s) Tag receives and modifies carrier signal sends back modulated signal (Passive Backscatter - FCC and ITU refer to as field disturbance device) Antennas receive the modulated signal and send them to the Reader Reader decodes the data Results returned to the host application
  • 9. RFID Operations
  • 10. What is RFID? -- The Tags Tags can be read-only or read-write Tag memory can be factory or field programmed, partitionable, and optionally permanently locked Bytes left unlocked can be rewritten over more than 100,000 times
  • 11. RFID System Basics Tag ID Only Read Only (Factory Programmable Programmed) Database Pointer WORM - Write Mission Critical Once, Read Many Information times Portable Database Reprogrammable (Field Programmable) Read/Write (In-Use Programmable)
  • 12. What is RFID? -- The TagsTags can be attached toalmost anything: pallets or cases of product vehicles company assets or personnel items such as apparel, luggage, laundry people, livestock, or pets high value electronics such as computers, TVs, camcorders
  • 13. Are All Tags The Same?Basic Types: Active Tag transmits radio signal Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry High Read Range (300 feet) Passive Tag reflects radio signal from reader Reader powered Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet)
  • 14. Are All Tags The Same?Variations: Memory Size (16 bits - 512 kBytes +) Read-Only, Read/Write or WORM Type: EEProm, Antifuse, FeRam Arbitration (Anti-collision) Ability to read/write one or many tags