Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering 6Th Edition-By Himmemblau

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SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS FORBASIC PRINCIPLES AND CALCULATIONS INCHEMICAL ENGINEERING 6TH EDITIONDavid M. HimmeblauThe University of Texas1996 by David M. HimmelblauAll rights reserved.No part of this material may be reproduced,in any form or by any means,without prior permission in writing from the author.ii1996 by David M. HimmelblauAll rights reserved.No part of this material may be reproduced,in any form or by any means,without prior permission in writing from the author.iiiCONTENTSPage1. Introduction to Engineering Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. Problem Solving.................................................................................. 243. Material Balances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294. Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725. Energy Balances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1116. Appendix A - Answers to Unsolved Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1647. Appendix B - Data...............................................................................1698 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173ivLIST OF FIGURESFigure Page1 Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Measuring tank pressure............................................................................103 U-Tube manometer..................................................................................124 Ammonia synthesis reactor.........................................................................175 Separation by pressure swing absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 Separation by distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347 Mixing (blending) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .368 Gas flow measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389 Measurement of gas concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3910 Crystallization........................................................................................4211 Furnace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4412 Evaporators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4913 Flash Combustion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5214 Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5615 Slurry reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5916 Solid-liquid-vapor separators . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6017. Separation by membranes .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8118. Gas compressors (Turbo Compressors)........................................................ 10019. Pumps and blowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11220. Annealing Ovens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11621. Heat exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12422. Steam chest......................................................................................... 13023. Furnace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14224. Dryers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154vPREFACEFor a long time students have sought out solved problems in addition to those provided asexamples in the textbook. Sources of such problems are related texts and old homework andexamination files, but these alternate sources are usually inconvenient to find and use.To meet this demand I compiled in this supplement additional problems with detailedsolutions, problems that are quite similar to those in the text. In addition, I have added numerousunsolved problems with answers (a frequent request for homework problem assignments). Eachset of problems conforms to the arrangement in my book "Basic Principles and Calculations inChemical Engineering, 6th edition, published by Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Thenotation used in the problems and solutions is the same as in the textbook.To acquaint students with process equipment usually shown as black boxes in exampleproblems, a series of pictures, line diagrams, and short explanations have been inserted atappropriate places in the supplement.How can you use this supplement? For those individuals who after reading a problem lookfirst for a similar problem with a worked out solution, this supplement offers numerous examplesto follow. For those who have some confidence in their ability to solve problems but just want tohone their skills by comparing their answers with known solutions, enough problems withanswers are given to make it impractical to solve all of them before moving on to the next topic.Students who want to prepare for exams will find the problems with answers helpful. Finally,those individuals who have trouble in developing consistent and fruitful strategies for problemsolving can make use of the detail solutions provided to improve their particular abilities.David M. HimmelblauAustin, TexasCHAPTER 1 1Problem 1.1AConvert the following quantities to the ones designated :a. 42 ft2/hr to cm2/s.b. 25 psig to psia.c. 100 Btu to hp-hr.Solutiona.42.0ft2hr 1.0 m3.2808 ft2 104cm21.0m21 hr 3600 s= 10.8 cm2/sb.100Btu 3.93 10-4 hp-hr1Btu= 3.93 10-2 hp-hrc. 80.0lbf

32.174(lbm)(ft)(lbf)(s)21 kg2.20lbm

1 m 3. 2808 ft1 N1(kg)(m)(s)-2 = 356 NProblem 1.1 B Convert the ideal gas constant : R = 1.987 cal(gmol)(K) to Btu(lbmol)(R)Solution1.987cal(gmol)(K)1Btu 252 cal 454 gmol 1 lb mol1K 1. 8 R= 1.98 Btu(lbmol)(R)Problem 1.1 CMass flow through a sonic nozzle is a function of gas pressure and temperature. For agiven pressure p and temperature T, mass flow rate through the nozzle is given bym = 0.0549 p /(T)0.5where m is in lb/min, p is in psia and T is in Ra. Determine what the units for the constant 0.0549 are.b. What will be the new value of the constant, now given as 0.0549, if the variables in the equation are to be substituted with SI units and m is calculated in SI units.2 Sec. 1.1 Units and DimensionsNOZZLES Fig. 1a. Ultrasonic nozzle(courtesy of Misonix Inc., Farmingdale,N.J.)Fig. 1b. A conventional nozzle spraying a fluidof suspended particles in a flash dryer.Spray nozzles are used for dust control, water aeration, dispersing a particular pattern ofdrops, coating, paintings, cleaning surfaces of tanks and vats, and numerous other applications.They develop a large interface between a gas and liquid, and can provide uniform round dropsof liquid. Atomization occurs by a combination of gas and liquid pressure differences. TheFigure below (courtesy of Misonix Inc.) compares the particle sizes from the ultrasonic nozzlewith those from the conventional nozzle.Fig. 1cSec. 1.1 Units and Dimensions 3Solutiona. Calculation of the constant.The first step is to substitute known units into the equation.lbmmin = 0.0549 lbf(in2)(R)0.5We want to find a set of units that convert units on the right hand side of the above expressionto units on the left hand side of the expression. Such a set can be set up directly bymultiplication.lbf(in2)(R)0.5(lbm)(in)2(R)0.5(min)(lbf) ------> (lbm)(min)Units for the constant 0.0549 are(lbm)(in)2(R)0.5(min)(lbf)b. To determine the new value of the constant, we need to change the units of the constant toappropriate SI units using conversion factors.0