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Prepared by: Mohamad Izzat bin Rozali Training Guide: Mr Rengaraj C. Manager: Mr Gokul Jothiraman Setpoints of Individual Steps

Basic Instruments and Setpoints for Fermentation

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    Prepared by: Mohamad Izzat bin Rozali

    Training Guide: Mr Rengaraj C.

    Manager: Mr Gokul Jothiraman

    Setpoints of

    Individual Steps

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    Batching steps that require

    setpoints

    Pressure tests

    Sterilization-in-Place (SIP)

    Empty SIP

    Full-Vessel SIP

    Media Sterilization

    Disinfection

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    Pressure Test

    Initial Pressure Test, Vessel Pressure Test I (VPI) &Vessel Pressure II (VP II)

    Test SP 1.40 bar

    Test Time 30 min

    Dep SP 0.1 bar

    Air Flow SP 30 LPM

    Test Hyst 0.1 bar

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    Sterilization

    ESIP and FSIP

    Heating 1 90 C

    Heating 2 121 C

    Cooling 1 90 CCooling 2 30 C

    Holding Time 1 (FSIP) 30 min

    Total Holding Time (FSIP) 60 min

    Sterilisation Time (ESIP) 60 minBack Pressure SP 1.3 bar

    Air Flow SP 30 LPM

    Dep SP (ESIP) 0.1 bar

    Heating Hyst 0.1 C

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    pH, Temperature,

    Pressure and LevelTransmitterBasic

    Principles of Operation

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    pH Transmitter

    Probe consists mainly of measuringelectrode and reference electrode

    The measuring electrode developsa potential (voltage) directly

    related to the hydrogen ionconcentration of the solution.

    The reference electrode provides astable potential against which themeasuring electrode can be

    compared.

    Both electrode contain KCL buffersolution that has constant H+concentration

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    pH Transmitter (contd)

    If:

    H+conc. inside solution > H+conc. insideelectrode

    Potential difference = Positive

    Acidic

    H+conc. inside solution < H+conc. insideelectrode

    Potential difference = Negative

    Basic

    H+conc. inside solution = H+conc. insideelectrode

    Potential difference = Zero

    Neutral

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    Temperature Transmitter

    Using a thermocouple

    consists of two wires of dissimilarmetals or alloys joined at theirends, with a potentiometer (or

    a voltmeter) connected in oneside of the circuit.

    Measuring junction

    Reference junction

    measuring junction in the environment whose

    temperature is to be measured.

    reference junction

    kept at a fixed, known

    temperature

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    Temperature Transmitter

    (contd) Works by the difference in the conductivities of

    the two wire materials at a measuredtemperature

    Difference of the temperature between themeasuring junction and reference junction willcreate an electric current

    Increase in temperatureincrease voltage

    Decrease in temperaturedecrease voltage

    Temperature of the medium can be determinedfrom the current voltage strength.

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    Pressure Transmitter

    Via a pressure transducer

    device which converts an appliedpressure into a measurableelectrical signal

    2 main parts

    elastic material which will deformwhen exposed to a pressurizedmedium (diaphragm)

    a electrical device which detectsthe deformation.

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    Pressure Transmitter (contd)

    Types of transducers:

    Resistive pressure transducer

    strain gauges bonded to thesurface of the diaphragm

    any change in pressure will causea change in the electricalresistance of each strain gauge

    Variable capacitance pressuretransducer

    capacitive plate bonded to oneside of the diaphragm andanother capacitive plate bondedto an unpressurized surface.

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    Level Transmitter

    Using principal of RF signalapplied to capacitance circuit

    An insulated electrode acts asone plate of capacitor and

    the tank wall acts as the otherplate.

    Capacitance is dependent onthe amount of product inside

    the tank: an empty tank has lower

    capacitance

    a filled tank has higher

    capacitance.

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    Level Transmitter (contd)

    Measures by applying an RF signalbetween the conductive probe andthe vessel wall.

    The RF signal results in a very lowcurrent flow through the dielectricprocess material in the tank from theprobe to the vessel wall.

    When the level in the tankdrops/increase, the dielectric

    constant drops/increase causing adrop/increase in the capacitancereading.

    The capacitance reading will thenbe translated into a certain level

    unit.

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    DO Transmitter

    Probe has thin organic membranecovering a layer of electrolyte andtwo metal electrodes.

    Oxygen diffuses through themembrane at a rate proportional toits partial pressure

    Higher oxygen partial pressure will increase

    the diffusion rate

    Oxygen is reduced at the cathode

    and the current is measured converts measured current into

    concentration units.

    Diffusion current is directlyproportional to the concentration of

    dissolved oxygen

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    References http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-

    sensors-types-working?page=2

    http://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.html

    http://www.sensorland.com/HowPage037.html

    http://enggyd.blogspot.in/2011/01/ph.html

    http://coep.vlab.co.in/?sub=33&brch=91&sim=449&cnt=1

    http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/#products/~level-measurement-principle-capacitive

    http://www.smartec.nl/pdf/SPDprinciples.pdf

    http://en-co.wika.de/upload/OI_A_10_en_de_fr_es_6240.pdf

    https://controls.engin.umich.edu/wiki/index.php/Temp

    eratureSensors

    http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2http://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.sensorland.com/HowPage037.htmlhttp://enggyd.blogspot.in/2011/01/ph.htmlhttp://coep.vlab.co.in/?sub=33&brch=91&sim=449&cnt=1http://coep.vlab.co.in/?sub=33&brch=91&sim=449&cnt=1http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.smartec.nl/pdf/SPDprinciples.pdfhttp://en-co.wika.de/upload/OI_A_10_en_de_fr_es_6240.pdfhttp://en-co.wika.de/upload/OI_A_10_en_de_fr_es_6240.pdfhttps://controls.engin.umich.edu/wiki/index.php/TemperatureSensorshttps://controls.engin.umich.edu/wiki/index.php/TemperatureSensorshttps://controls.engin.umich.edu/wiki/index.php/TemperatureSensorshttps://controls.engin.umich.edu/wiki/index.php/TemperatureSensorshttps://controls.engin.umich.edu/wiki/index.php/TemperatureSensorshttp://en-co.wika.de/upload/OI_A_10_en_de_fr_es_6240.pdfhttp://en-co.wika.de/upload/OI_A_10_en_de_fr_es_6240.pdfhttp://en-co.wika.de/upload/OI_A_10_en_de_fr_es_6240.pdfhttp://en-co.wika.de/upload/OI_A_10_en_de_fr_es_6240.pdfhttp://www.smartec.nl/pdf/SPDprinciples.pdfhttp://www.smartec.nl/pdf/SPDprinciples.pdfhttp://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/http://coep.vlab.co.in/?sub=33&brch=91&sim=449&cnt=1http://coep.vlab.co.in/?sub=33&brch=91&sim=449&cnt=1http://coep.vlab.co.in/?sub=33&brch=91&sim=449&cnt=1http://enggyd.blogspot.in/2011/01/ph.htmlhttp://enggyd.blogspot.in/2011/01/ph.htmlhttp://www.sensorland.com/HowPage037.htmlhttp://www.sensorland.com/HowPage037.htmlhttp://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-glossary/pressure-transducer.htmlhttp://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-sensors-types-working?page=2